Susceptibility of Culicidae Mosquitoes to Some Insecticides Recommended by WHO in a Malaria Endemic Area of Southeastern Iran

  • Mousa Fathian Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Hassan Vatandoost Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • SeyedHassan Moosa-Kazemi Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Ahmad Raeisi Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran AND Malaria Unit, CDC, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Iran.
  • MohammadReza Yaghoobi-Ershadi Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • MohammadAli Oshaghi Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • MohammadMehdi Sedaghat Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Keywords: Culicidae, Malaria, Susceptibility test, Southeastern Iran

Abstract

Background: According to the national strategy plan on monitoring of insecticides resistance, this study was carried out to determine the base line susceptibility of the Culicidae mosquitoes to the WHO-recommended insecticides in an endemic focus of malaria in southeastern Iran.Methods: Larval collection was carried out by dipping method and adult collection occurred by suction tube from January to December 2010. The susceptibility test was assessed to DDT 4 %, malathion 5 %, propoxur 0.1 %, deltamethrin 0.05 %, lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05 %, and cyfluthrin 0.15 % at different interval times (discriminative dose) followed by 24 h recovery period . The LT50 and LT90 values were calculated for plotting the regression line using Microsoft office Excel software ver. 2007.Results: Anopheles stephensi was quite resistant to DDT and showed susceptible or tolerant to other insecticides. The LT50 and LT90 values to DDT in this species were 29.07, and 98.26 minutes, respectively. Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles dthali were found susceptible or tolerant to insecticides. Culex pipiens was found resistance to DDT, propoxur, lambda-cyhalothrin and cyfluthrin whereas observed susceptible to malathion and tolerant to deltamethrin. Ochlerotatus caspius sl. was resistant to DDT, whereas found susceptible to other insecticides. Culisita longiareolatawas susceptible to deltamethrin, whereas tolerant to other insecticides. The LT50 and LT90 values of Cs. longiareolata to DDT were 17.82, and 51.26 minutes.Conclusion: We suggested the same study in different parts of the country for monitoring and evaluation of control measures.

References

Abbott WS (1925) A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J Econ Entomol. 18: 265–267.

African Network on Vector Resistance (2005) World Health Organization African Region. Atlas of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors of the WHO African region. Harare, Zimbabwe

Amin AM, Hemingway J (1998) Preliminary investigation of the mechanisms of DDT and pyrethroid resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) from Saudi Arabia. Bull Entomol Res.79: 361–366.

Azari-Hamidian S, Harbach RE (2009) Keys to the adult females and fourth-instar larvae of the mosquitoes of Iran (Dip- tera: Culicidae) Zootaxa. 2078: 1–33.

Barr AR, Kabtman L (1951) Biometrical notes on the hybridization of Culex pipiens L. and C. quinquejasciatus Say. J Parasit. 37: 419–420.

Ben Cheikh H, Ben Ali-Haouas Z, Marquine M, Pasteur N (1998) Resistance to or- ganophosphates and pyrethroid insec- ticides Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) from Tunisia. J Med Entomol. 35: 251–260.

Bisset JA, Rodriguez MM, Hemingway J, Diaz C, Small GJ, Ortiz E (1991) Malathion and pyrethroid resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus from Cuba: efficacy of pirimiphos-methyl in the presence of at least three resistance mechanisms. Med Vet Entomol. 5:223–228.

Chandre F, Darriet F, Darder M, Cuany A, Doannio JMC, Pasteur N, Guillet P (1998) Pyrethroid resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus from west Africa. Med Vet Entomol. 12: 359–366.

Davari B, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Ladonni H, Enayati AA, Shaeghi M, Basseri HR, Rassi Y, Hanafi-Bojd AA (2007) Selection of Anopheles stephensi with DDT and dieldrin and cross-re- sistance spectrum to pyrethroids and fipronil. Pest Biochem Physiol. 89: 97–103.

Dehghan H, Sadraei J, Moosa-Kazemi SH (2010) The morphological variations of Culex pipiens larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Yazd Province, Central Iran. Iran J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 4(2): 42–49.

Eshghy N (1978) Tolerance of Anopheles stephensi to Malathion in the province of Fars, southern Iran. Mosq News.38(4): 580–583.

Eshghy N, Janbakhsh B (1976) Insecticide resistance of Anopheles stephensi my- sorensis in the province of Fars, south- ern Iran. Mosq News. 36(3): 336– 339.

Faghih MA (1969) Malaria and malaria erad- ication. Tehran University Press, p. 726.

Finney DJ (1971) Probit analysis (3rd ed): Cambridge University Press, Cam- bridge, UK.

Finney DJ (1978) Statistical method in bio- logical assay (3rd ed): Hodder Arnold press, London, UK.

Ghaffari AN (1955) The classification of Culicidae (Diptera: Nematocera): the study of Culex linneanues in Iran. Teh- ran University, School of Medicine, Iran, p. 189.

Gjullin CM, Peters RF (1952) Abstract of recent studies of mosquito resistance to insecticides in California. Proceed- ings and Papers of the Twenty Ann Conf Calif Mosq Control Assoc, Vol.1. Visalia press, Cleveland, Ohio, USA, pp. 44–45.

Goswami G, Singh OP, Nanda N, Raghavendra K, Gakhar SK, Subbarao SK (2006) Identification of all members of the Anopheles culicifacies complex using allele-specific polymerase chain reac- tion assays. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 75 (3): 454–60.

Hanafi-Bojd AA, Azari-Hamidian S, Vatan- doost H (2011) Spatio-temporal distri- bution of malaria vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) across different climatic zones of Iran. Asian Pacific J Trop Med 4(6): 498-504.

Isaak LW (1961) Review of insecticide resistance in Kern Mosquito Abate- ment District. Proc and Papers of the Twenty-nine Ann Conf Calif Mosq Control Assoc. Vol. 1. Visalia press, Cleveland, Ohio, USA, pp. 105–106.

Jinfu W (1999) Resistance to deltamethrin in Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culi- cidae) from Zhejiang, China. J Med Entomol. 36: 389–393.

Manouchehri N, Eshghi F, Rouhani F (1974) Malathion susceptibility test of Anoph- eles stephensi mysorensis in southern Iran. Mosq News. 34: 440–442.

Manouchehri AV, Janbakhsh B, Rouhani F (1976b) Studies on the resistance of Anopheles stephensi to Malathion in Bandar Abbas, Iran. Mosq News. 36 (3): 320–322.

McAbee RD, Kang KD, Stanich MA, Christiansen JA, Wheelock CE, Inman AD, Hammock BD, Cornel AJ (2003) Pyrethroid tolerance in Culex pipiens pipiens var molestus from Marin Coun- ty, California. Pest Manag Sci. 60: 359–368.

Ministry of Health (MOH) Medical Educa- tion (ME) of Iran (2010) Annual report of malaria control department. Tehran: CDC, Iran, pp. 50–65.

Mofidi Ch, Samimi B, Eshghy N, Ghiasedin M (1958) Further study of Anophelinae susceptibility to insecticides in Iran. Re-sult of Busvine and Nash method, Iran. Publ 585. Institute of Parasitology and Malariology, Tehran, pp. 1–7.

Mofidi Ch, Samimi B (1960) Resistance of Anopheles stephensi to dieldrin in Iran. Publ 650. Institute of Parasitology and Malariology, Tehran, pp. 3–4.

Moosa Kazemi SH, Karimiana F, Davari B (2010) Culicinae mosquitoes in Sa- nandaj County, Kurdistan Province, western Iran. J Vector Borne Dis: 103–107.

Moosa-Kazemi SH, Vatandoost H, Nikookar H, Fathian M (2009) Culicinae (Dip- tera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes in Cha- bahar County, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Southeastern Iran. Iran J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 3: 29–35.

Moosa-Kazemi SH, Vatandoost H, Raeisi A, Akbarzadeh K (2007) Deltamethrin impregnated bed nets in a malaria con- trol program in Chabahar, Southeast Baluchistan, Iran. Iran J Arthropod- Borne Dis. 1: 43–51.

Nazari M, Janbakhsh B (2000) A survey of the susceptibility level of Culex theileri and Cx. pipiens to DDT, Dieldrin, Propoxur and Malathion in the south- ern area of Tehran. J Uromia Univ Med Sci. 11(1): 13–19.

Nikookar SH, Moosa-Kazemi SH, Oshaghi MA, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Vatandoost H, Kianinasab A (2010) Species com- position and diversity of mosquitoes in Neka County, Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran. Iran J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 4(2): 26–34.

Omrani SM, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Shokri F, Guerin PM, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Rassi Y, Tirgari S (2010) Fabri- cation of an olfactometer for mosquito behavioural studies. J Vector Borne Dis. 47: 17–25.

Oshaghi MA, Chavshin AR, Vatandoost H (2006) Analysis of mosquito bloodmeals using RFLP markers. Exp Parasitol. 114:259–264.

Pluess B, Tanser FC, Lengeler C and Sharp BL (2010) Indoor residual spraying for preventing malaria. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 4: 4.

Sedaghat MM, Harbach RE (2005) An annotated checklist of the Anopheles mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Iran. J Vector Ecol 2005. 30: 272–276.

Shahgudian ER (1960) A key to the Ano- phelines of Iran. Acta Med Iran. 3: 38–48.

Toma L, Menegon M, Romi R, De Matthaeis E, Montanari M, Severini C (2011) Status of insecticide resistance in Culex pipiens field populations from north- eastern areas of Italy before the with- drawal of OP compounds. Pest Manag Sci. 67(1): 100–106.

Vatandoost H, Borhani N (2004a) Suscep- tibility and irritability levels of main malaria vectors to synthetic pyrethroids in the endemic areas of Iran. Acta Med Iranica. 42: 240–247.

Vatandoost H, Moinvaziri VM (2004b) Larvicidal activity of neem tree extract (Neemarin) against mosquito larvae in the Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 10: 573–578.

Vatandoost H, Shahi H, Abai MR, Hanafi- Bojd AA, Oshaghi MA, Zamani G (2004c) Larval habitats of main malaria vectors in Hormozgan Province and their susceptibility to different larvicides. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Pub Hlth.35: 22–25.

Vatandoost H, Hanafi-Bojd AA (2005a) Current resistant status of Anopheles stephensi Liston to different larvicides in Hormozgan Province, southeastern Iran. Pakistan J Bio Sci. 8: 1568–1570.

Vatandoost H, Mashayekhi M, Abai MR, Aflatoonian MR, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Sharifi I (2005b) Monitoring of insecti- cides resistance in main malaria vectors in a malarious area of Kahnooj district, Kerman Province, southeastern Iran. J Vec Borne Dis. 42: 100–108.

Vatandoost H, Gholizadeh MR, Abai MR, Djavadian E (2006a) Laboratory effi- cacy of protection rate of torn nets treated with pyrethroids, cufluthrin, deltamethrin and permethrin against Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Cu- licidae). J Biol Sci. 6: 331–336.

Vatandoost H, Oshaghi M, Abai MR, Shahi M, Yaaghoobi F, Baghaii M, Hanafi- Bojd AA, Zamania G, Townsonc H (2006b) Bionomics of Anopheles stephensi Liston in the malarious area of Hormozgan Province, southern Iran. Acta Trop. 97: 196–205.

Vatandoost H, Shahi M, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Abai MR, Oshaghi MA, Rafii F (2007) Ecology of Anopheles dthali Patton in Bandar Abbas. Iran J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 1: 21–27.

Vatandoost H, Khazani A, KebriainZadeh A, Vatandoost H, Khazani A, Kebriain Zadeh A, Rafinejad J, Khoobdel M, Abai MR, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Akhavan AA, Abtahi. SM, Rafi F (2008) Com- parative efficacy of Neem and dime- thyl phthalate (DMP) against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). Asian Pac J Trop Med. 1:1–6.

Vatandoost H, Ramin E, Rassi Y, Abai MR (2009a) Stability and wash resistance of local made mosquito bednets and detergents treated with pyrethroids against Anopheles stephensi. Iran J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 3: 19–28.

Vatandoost H, Abai MR, Abbasi M, Shaeghi M, Abtahi M, Rafie F (2009b) Design- ing of a laboratory model for evalua- tion of the residual effects of delta- methrin (K-othrine WP 5%) on differ- ent surfaces against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). J Vector Borne Dis. 46: 261–267.

Vatandoost H, Emami SN, Oshaghi MA, Abai MR, Raeisi A, Piazzak N, Mahmoodi M, Akbarzadeh K, Sartipi M (2011) Ecology of malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies in a malarious area of Sistan va Baluchestan Province, south- east Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 17(5): 439–445.

Vatandoost H, Hanafi-Bojd AA (2012) In- dication of pyrethroid resistance in the main malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi from Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 5(9):722–726.

WHO (1975a) Manual of practical entomol- ogy in malaria. Part 1. Vector bionom- ics and organisation of antimalarial activities. WHO Press, Avenue Appia, Geneva, Switzerland

WHO (1975b) Manual on Practical Ento- mology in Malaria. Part II. Methods and Techniques. WHO Press, Geneva, Switzerland.

WHO (1992) Vector resistance to pesticides.Fifteenth report of the WHO expert committee on vector control. WHO Tech Rep Ser. No. 818. WHO Press, Avenue Appia, Geneva , Switzerland.

WHO (2002) Entomology and vector con- trol. Training module on malaria con- trol. Guide for participants. World Health Organization: Global Malaria Programe, WHO Press, Avenue Appia, Geneva, Switzerland

WHO (2006) Pesticides and their application.For the control of vectors and pests of public health importance. Volume WHO/ CDS/NTD/WHOPES/GCDPP/2006.1. WHO Press, Avenue Appia, Geneva, Switzerland ,

WHO (2011) World malaria report. WHO Press, Avenue Appia, Geneva, Switzerland.

WHO (2013) Malaria report. WHO Press, World Health Organization, WHO Press, Avenue Appia, Geneva, Switzerland.

Zahar AR (1990) Applied field studies Section 3, Vector bionomics, Malaria epidemiology and control by geo- graphical areas (B) Asia west of India. WHO VBC/60.3- Mal/90.3.

Zaim M, Cranston PS (1986) Checklist and keys to the Culicinae of Iran (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq Syst. 18: 233–245.

Zaim M, Javaherian Z (1991) Occurrence of Anopheles culicifacies species A in Iran. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 7(2):324–326.

Zaim M, Zahirnia AH, Manouchehri AV, Zaim M, Zahirnia AH, Manouchehri AV (1993) Survival rates of Anopheles culicifacies s.l and Anopheles pul- cherrimus in sprayed and unsprayed villages' in Ghassreghand district, Ba- luchistan, Iran. J Am Mosq Cont Assoc.9: 421–425.

Published
2015-10-11
How to Cite
1.
Fathian M, Vatandoost H, Moosa-Kazemi S, Raeisi A, Yaghoobi-Ershadi M, Oshaghi M, Sedaghat M. Susceptibility of Culicidae Mosquitoes to Some Insecticides Recommended by WHO in a Malaria Endemic Area of Southeastern Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 9(1):22-34.
Section
Original Article