Molecular Typing and Phylogenetic Analysis of Some Species Belonging to Phlebotomus (Larroussius) and Phlebotomus (Adlerius) Subgenera (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Two Locations in Iran
AbstractBackground: Haematophagous females of some phlebotomine sandflies are the only natural vectors of Leishmania species, the causative agents of leishmaniasis in many parts of the tropics and subtropics, including Iran. We report the presence of Phlebotomus (Larroussius) major and Phlebotomus (Adlerius) halepensis in Tonekabon (Mazanderan Province) and Phlebotomus (Larroussius) tobbi in Pakdasht (Tehran Province). It is the first report of these species, known as potential vectors of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in Iran, are identified in these areas.Methods: In 2006-2007 individual wild-caught sandflies were characterized by both morphological features and sequence analysis of their mitochondrial genes (Cytochrome b). The analyses were based on a fragment of 494 bp at the 3´ end of the Cyt b gene (Cyt b 3´ fragment) and a fragment of 382 bp CB3 at the 5´ end of the Cyt b gene (Cyt b 5´ fragment). We also analysed the Cyt b Long fragment, which is located on the last 717 bp of the Cyt b gene, followed by 20 bp of intergenic spacer and the transfer RNA ser(TCN) gene.Results: Twenty-seven P. halepensis and four P. major from Dohezar, Tonekabon, Mazanderan province and 8 P. tobbi from Packdasht, Tehran Province were identified by morphological and molecular characters. Cyt b 5´ and Cyt b 3´ fragment sequences were obtained from 15 and 9 flies, respectively. Cyt b long fragment sequences were obtained from 8 out of 27 P. halepensis.Conclusion: Parsimony analyses (using heuristic searches) of the DNA sequences of Cyt b always showed monophyletic clades of subgenera and each species did form a monophyletic group.
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