Pathogenic Fungal Species Associated with Digestive System of Periplaneta americana (Blattaria: Blattidae) Trapped from Residential Dwellings in Ahvaz City, Southwestern Iran
AbstractBackground: Cockroaches are the most prevalent domestic pests of a worldwide distribution. They were recognized as possible vectors of pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites in residential dwellings and hospital environments. The present study isolated and identified yeasts and filamentous fungi from digestive tract of American cockroaches, collected from three different residential regions of Iran.Methods: Seventy cockroaches were sampled using direct collection (hand catch), vacuum cleaner and sticky traps in Ahvaz, Iran in 2009–2010. Their medically important fungal microorganisms were isolated from digestive tract using standard mycological methods. Filamentous fungi were identified by macroscopic and microscopic examination. Yeasts were identified by API ID32C-32100 kit.Results: A high percentage of cockroaches (88.6%) were detected to carry fungi of medical importance. Overall, 23 fungi species/genera were isolated from the American cockroaches' alimentary tract. The fungi isolated from cockroaches, from the residential regions were species of Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Penicillium, Mucorales, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Mycelia, Chrysosporium, Candida, Rhodotorula, Zygosaccharomyces, and Debaryomyces. Candida spp. (41.4%), Aspergillus spp. (37.1%) and Rhodotorula spp (27.1%) were the most common fungi recovered on cockroaches. Candida albicans and Candida glabrata were the commonest species of the genus Candida. In addition, Aspergillus niger and A. flavus were the most frequent species of the genus Aspergillus.Conclusion: American cockroaches may carry pathogenic fungi in the urban areas of Ahvaz.
Hashemi-Aghdam SS, Oshaghi MA (2015) A Checklist of Iranian Cock-roaches (Blattodea) with description of Polyphaga sp. as a new species in Iran. J Ar¬thropod-Borne Dis. 9(2): 161–175.
Dehghani R, Atharizadeh M, Moosavi SG, Azadi S, Rashidi M, Paksa A (2014) Analysis of cockroach fauna and frequency in human residential habitats of North of Isfahan, Iran. Inter Arch Health Sci. 1(1): 25–29.
Fakoorziba MR, Eghbal F, Hassanzadeh J, MoemenbellahFard MD (2010) Cock-roaches (Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica) as potential vectors of the pathogenic bacteria found in nosocomial infections. An-nals Trop Med Parasit. 104: 521–528.
Vahabi A, Shemshadn K, Mohammadi P, Sayyadi M, Shemshad M, Rafinejad J (2011) Microbiological study of do¬mestic cockroaches in human dwelling localities. Afr J Microbiol Res. 5: 5790–5792.
Beccaloni GW, Eggleton P (1882) Order Blattodea Brunner von Wattenwyl. In: Zhang ZQ. (Ed.) (2011) Animal bio¬diversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa. 3148: 199–200.
Pai HH, Chen WC, Peng CF (2004) Cock-roaches as potential vectors of noso-comial infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 25: 979–984.
Kassiri H, Kazemi S (2012) Cockroaches [Periplaneta americana (L.), Dicty-optera; Blattidae] as carriers of bacterial pathogens, Khorramshahr County, Iran. Jundishapur J Micro-biol. 5(1): 320–322.
Feizhaddad MH, Kassiri H, Sepand MR, Ghasemi F (2012) Bacteriological sur¬vey of American cockroaches in hospitals. Middle East J Sci Res. 12(7): 985–989.
Kassiri H, Kasiri A, Quaderi A (2014) Detection and prevalence rate of Ameri¬can cockroaches (Periplaneta ameri¬cana) bacterial infections in human dwell¬ings. Arch Clin Infect Dis. 9(4): 1–3.
Kassiri H, Kassiri A, Kazemi S (2014) Investigation on American cock¬roaches medically important bacteria in Khorramshahr hospital, Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Dis. 4(3): 201–203.
Zarchi AA, Vatani H (2009) A survey on species and prevalence rate of bacte-rial agents isolated from cockroach-es in three hospitals. Vector Borne Zo¬onotic Dis. 9(2): 197–200.
Allotey J, Mpuchane S, Gashe BA, Sim-panya M, Matsheka I (2009) Trap-ping of Blattella germanica (L) pop-ulations in human dwellings in Gab-o¬rone, Botswana. J Appl Zoo Res. 20 (2): 175–188.
Akbari S, Oshaghi MA, Hashemi-Aghdam SS, Hajikhani S, Oshaghi G, Shirazi MH (2015) Aerobic bac-terial commu¬nity of American cock-roach Peri¬planeta americana, a step toward find¬ing suitable para-transgenesis candi¬dates. J Arthro-pod-Borne Dis. 9(1): 35–48.
Lemos AA, Lemos JA, Prado MA, Pi-menta FC, Gir E, Silva HM, Silva MR (2006) Cockroaches as carriers of fungi of medical importance. My¬coses. 49 (5): 23–25.
Salehzadeh A, Tavacol P, Mahjub H (2007) Bacterial, fungal and parasitic contam¬i-nation of cockroaches in pub¬lic hos-pitals of Hamadan, Iran. J Vector Borne Dis. 44: 105–110.
Chitsazi S, Moravvej G, Naderi-Nasab M (2013) A survey on the bacterial and fungal contamination of German cock¬roaches in Mashhad Imam-Reza hos¬pital during 2009–2010. FEYZ. 16 (6): 576–584 (In Persian).
Saichua P, Pinmai K, Somrithipol S, Tor-Udom S (2008) Isolation of medi¬cally important fungi from cock¬roaches trapped at Thammasat Cha¬lermprakiat Hospital. Thammasat Med J. 8(3): 345–351.
Bouza E, Munoz P (2003) Epidemiology of candidemia in intensive care units. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 32(Suppl 2): S87–91.
Maschmeyer G, Haas A, Cornely OA (2007) Invasive aspergillosis: Epide-miology, diagnosis and manage¬ment in immunocompromised pa¬tients. Drugs. 67: 1567–601.
Perfect JR, Cox GM, Lee JY, Kauffman CA, Repentigny L.de, Chapman SW, Morrison VA, Pappas V, Hiemenz JW, Stevens DA (2001) The impact of culture isolation of Aspergillus species: a hospital-based survey of aspergillosis. Clin Infect Dis.33:1824–1833.
Trof RJ, Beishuizen A, Debets-Ossenkopp YJ, Girbes AR, Groeneveld AB (2007) Management of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in non-neutropenic critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med. 33: 1694–1703.
Li D, Ding X, Tao R, Xin Zhang Y, Fei Wang J(2008)Hospitalacquired in-vasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with hepatic failure. BMC Gas¬troenterol. 8: 32.
Nabili M, Shokohi T, Janbabaie G, Hashemi-Soteh MB, Ali-Moghaddam K, Aghili SR (2013) Detection of in¬va-sive aspergillosis in bone marrow transplant recipients using real-time PCR. J Glob Infect Dis. 5(2): 68–75.
Cheng SC, Joosten LA, Kullberg BG, Netea MG (2012) Interplay between Candida albicans and the mammalian innate host defense. Infect Im-mun. 80(4): 1304–1313.
Motevali Haghi SF, Aghili SR, Gholami S, Salmanian B, Nikokar SH, Khan-golzadeh Geravi M, Hajati H (2014) Isolation of medically important fun¬gi from cockroaches trapped at hospitals of Sari, Iran. Bull Env Pharma-col
Life Sci. 3(5): 29–36.
Fotedar R, Banerjee Shhriniwas U, Ver-ma A (1991) Cockroaches (Blattella germanica) as carriers of microorganisms of medical importance in hospitals. Epidemiol Infect. 107: 181–187.
Doroodgar A, Arbabi M, Asadi MA (2006) Survey on parasitic and fun¬gal agents of hospital cockroaches in Kashan-2002. FEYZ. 10(1): 28–35 (In Persian).
Fotedar R, Banerjee U (1992) Nosocom-ial fungal infections study of the pos¬sible role of cockroaches (Blattella germanica) as vectors. Acta Trop¬ica. 50: 339–343.
Kassiri H, Zarrin M, Veys-Behbahani R, Faramarzi S, Kasiri A (2015) Isola¬tion and Identification of Pathogenic Fil-amentous Fungi and Yeasts From Adult House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Cap-tured From the Hospital Environments in Ahvaz City, Southwest¬ern Iran. J Med Entomol. 52(6): 1351–1356.
McNeil MM, Nash SL, Hajjehm RA (2001) Trends in mortality due to in¬vasive mycotic diseases in the United States, 1980–1997. Clin Infect Dis. 33: 641–6477.
De La Rosa GR, Champlin RE, Kontoy-iannis DP (2002) Risk factors for the development of invasive fungal infections in allogeneic blood and mar¬row transplant recipients. Transplant Infect Dis. 4: 3–9.
Heinemann S (2004) Environmental in-vestigations and molecular typing of Aspergillus flavus during an outbreak of postoperative infections. J Hosp Infect. 57(2): 149–55.
Krishnan S, Manavathu EK, Chandra-sekar PH (2009) Aspergillus flavus: an emerging non-fumigatus Asper-gil¬lus species of significance. My-coses. 52(3): 206–222.
Person AK (2010) Aspergillus niger: an unusual cause of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. J Med Microbiol. 59: 834–838.
Park SJ, Chung CR, Rhee YK, Lee HB, Lee YC, Kweon EY (2012) Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis due to As-pergillus niger. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 186(10): e16–e17.
Pfaller MA, Diekema DJ (2007) Epide-miology of invasive candidiasis: A persistent public health problem. Clin Microbiol Rev. 20: 133–163.