Larval Habitat Characteristics of the Genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) and a Checklist of Mosquitoes in Guilan Province, Northern Iran
AbstractBackground: Ecological data are important in the vector control management of mosquitoes. There is scattered published information about the larval habitat characteristics and ecology of the genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in Iran and most of available data is in relation to malaria vectors in southern Iran.Methods: This cross sectional investigation was carried out to study the mosquito fauna and ecology in Guilan Province, northern Iran, during April–December 2000. Larvae were collected using the standard dipping technique. Larval habitat characteristics were recorded according to water situation (clear or turbid), vegetation, substrate type, sunlight situation, habitat situation (transient or permanent, running or stagnant), habitat type (natural or artificial), and water temperature.Results: In total, 1547 third- and fourth-instar larvae of Anopheles from 90 habitats were collected and morphologically identified. Five species; Anopheles claviger, An.’hyrcanus’, An. maculipennis s.l., An. plumbeus, and An. superpictus were identified and respectively comprised 6.3%, 22.4%, 54.4%, 13.0%, and 3.9% of the samples. The mean and range temperatures of the larval habitat water were 19.6oC (n=14) (16–25oC), 22.6oC (n=53) (12–33oC), 23.8oC (n=52) (10–33oC), 11.5oC (n=12) (9–21oC), and 20.4oC (n=7) (12–26oC), respectively. There was a significant difference in the mean water temperatures (11.5–23.5oC) of the larval habitats of different species (P=0.000). Most of the genus larvae were collected from natural habitats (86.9%) such as river bed pools (46.4%) and rain pools (33.1%) with transient (98.3%), stagnant (99.5%) and clear (95.3%) water, with vegetation (69.9%), mud (42.0%) or gravel (39.7%) substrate in full sunlight (69.6%) or shaded (22.7%) area. A checklist of the province mosquitoes including 30 species and seven genera has been provided.Conclusion: The main larval habitats of the most abundant species, An.’hyrcanus’ and An. maculipennis s.l., in Guilan Province are: river bed pools, rain pools, and rice fields.
Azari-Hamidian S, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Javadian E (2001) A faunistic study of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna in Rasht County (Iran). Modarres J Med Sci. 3: 65–70 [Persian with English ab- stract].
Azari-Hamidian S, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Javadian E (2002a) The distribution and larval habitat characteristics of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Rasht County (Guilan Province, Iran). Modarres J Med Sci. 4: 87–96 [Persian with English abstract].
Azari-Hamidian S, Joeafshani MA, Mosslem M, Rassaei AR (2002b) Taxonomic survey of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culici- dae) in Guilan Province with reporting of a subgenus new to Iranian mosquitofauna. The 15th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, 7–11 September 2002, Razi University of Kermanshah, Kerman- shah, Iran. pp. 319–320 [Persian with English abstract].
Azari-Hamidian S, Joeafshani MA, Rassaei AR, Mosslem M (2002c) Mosquitoes of the genus Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Guilan. J Med Fac Guilan Univ Med Sci. 11(43): 29–39 [Persian with Eng- lish abstract].
Azari-Hamidian S (2003) On the tree hole mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna, ecology and medical importance in Guilan Province. The 4th National Ira- nian Congress of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases, 13–16 October 2003, Mashhad, Iran. p. 293 [Persian with English abstract].
Azari-Hamidian S, Joeafshani MA, Mosslem M, Rassaei AR (2003a) Adult mos- quito habitats and resting-places in Gui- lan Province (Diptera: Culicidae). Ha- kim. 6: 55–62 [Persian with English abstract].
Azari-Hamidian S, Joeafshani MA, Rassaei AR, Mosslem M (2003b) Faunistic studies on the genus Culiseta (Diptera: Culicidae) in Guilan Province. J Ker- man Univ Med Sci. 10: 225–233 [Per- sian with English abstract].
Azari-Hamidian S, Joeafshani MA, Rassaei AR, Mosslem M, Mousavi-Eivanaki E (2004a) Mosquito fauna of the genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in Gui- lan Province. Modarres J Med Sci. 6:11–22 [Persian with English abstract].
Azari-Hamidian S, Joeafshani MA, Mosslem M, Rassaei AR (2004b) Notes on Co- quillettidia richiardii and Uranotaenia unguiculata (Diptera: Culicidae) in Guilan Province. J Med Fac Guilan Univ Med Sci. 13(51): 1–9 [Persian with English abstract].
Azari-Hamidian S (2005) Larval habitat characteristics of mosquitoes of the ge- nus Culiseta Felt, 1904 (Diptera: Culi-cidae) in the Caspian Sea littoral, Iran. Zool Middle East. 36: 59–66.
Azari-Hamidian S, Joeafshani MA, Mosslem M, Rassaei AR (2005) Mosquito fauna and distribution of the genus Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Guilan Prov- ince. Pajouhesh and Sazandegi. 68: 39–45 [Persian with English abstract].
Azari-Hamidian S (2006) On the ecology of the tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in the Caspian sea littoral, Iran. The 11th International Congress of Parasitology, 6–11 August 2006, Glas- gow, Scotland, UK.
Azari-Hamidian S, Abai MR, Ladonni H, Vatandoost H, Akbarzadeh K (2006) Anopheles peditaeniatus (Leicester) new to the Iranian mosquito fauna with notes on Anopheles hyrcanus group in Iran. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 22:144–146.
Azari-Hamidian S (2007a) Checklist of Ira- nian mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). J Vector Ecol. 32: 235–242.
Azari-Hamidian S (2007b) Larval habitat characteristics of mosquitoes of the ge- nus Culex (Diptera; Culicidae) in Gui- lan Province, Iran. Iran J Arthropod- Borne Dis. 1: 9–20.
Azari-Hamidian S, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Javadian E, Mobedi I, Abai MR (2007) Review of dirofilariasis in Iran. J Med Fac Guilan Univ Med Sci. 15(60):
–113 [Persian with English abstract]. Azari-Hamidian S, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR,
Javadian E, Abai MR, Mobedi I, Lin- ton Y-M, Harbach RE (2009) Distri- bution and ecology of mosquitoes in a focus of dirofilariasis in northwestern Iran, with the first finding of filarial larvae in naturally infected local mos- quitoes. Med Vet Entomol. 23: 111–121.
Beklemishev V, Shipitzina N (1947) Ano- pheles marteri in the north-western Iran. Med Parasitol Parasit Dis. 16: 66–67 [Russian with English abstract].
Danilov VN (1975) Mosquito fauna of northwestern Iran. Med Parasitol Para- sit Dis. 44: 732 [Russian with English abstract].
Darsie RF, Samanidou-Voyadjoglou A (1997) Keys for the identification of the mosquitoes of Greece. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 13: 247–254.
de Zulueta J, Jolivet P, Thymakis K, Caprari P (1957) Seasonal variations in sus- ceptibility to DDT of Anopheles macu- lipennis in Iran. Bull WHO.16: 475–479.
Dinparast-Jadid N, Kordiev M, Townson H (2001) Molecular key to Anopheles maculipennis species complex and its application for malaria control in the costal area of Caspian Sea. The 3rd Ira- nian Congress of Medical Parasitology, Sari, Iran. p. 108 [Persian].
Djadid ND, Gholizadeh S, Tafsiri E, Romi R, Gordeev M, Zakeri S (2007) Mo- lecular identification of Palearctic members of Anopheles maculipennis in northern Iran. Malaria J. 6: 6–15.
Djadid ND, Jazayeri H, Gholizadeh S, Rad ShP, Zakeri S (2009) First record of a new member of Anopheles Hyrcanus Group from Iran: molecular identifica- tion, diagnosis, phylogeny, status of kdr resistance and Plasmodium infec- tion. J Med Entomol. 46: 1084–1093.
Doosti S, Azari-Hamidian S, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Hosseini M (2006) Taxonomic differentiation of Anophe- les sacharovi and An. maculipennis s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae by seta 2 (antepalmate hair). Acta Med Iran. 44:21–27.
Dow RP (1953) Notes on Iranian mosqui- toes. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2: 683–695. Edrissian GH (2006) Malaria in Iran: Past and present situation. Iran J Parasitol.1: 1–14.
Eshghi N, Motabar M, Javadian E, Mano- uchehri AV (1976) Biological features of Anopheles fluviatilis and its role in the transmission of malaria in Iran. Trop Geogr Med. 28: 41–44.
Eshghy N (1977) Anopheles multicolor Cambouliu and its role in the transmis- sion of malaria in Iran. J Entomol Soc Iran. 4: 87–88 [Persian with English abstract].
Eslami A (1997) Veterinary Helminthology.Vol. 3. Nematoda and Acanthocephala. Tehran University Publications, Tehran [Persian].
Ghanbari MR, Rakhsh Khorshid A, Salehi M, Hassanzehi A (2005) The study of physical and chemical factors affecting breeding places of Anopheles in Iran- shahr. Tabib-e-Shargh, J Zahedan Univ Med Sci. 7: 221–227 [Persian with Eng- lish abstract].
Gholizadeh S, Tafsiri E, Zakeri S, Dinparast- Jadid N (2004) Molecular identifica- tion of a new species to Iranian ano- pheline fauna of Anopheles maculi- pennis complex (Diptera: Culicidae).
The 13th Iranian Congress on Infec- tious Diseases and Tropical Medicine,11–15 December 2004, Tehran, Iran. p.197 [Persian].
Gholizadeh S, Tafsiri E, Zakeri S, Dinparast Djadid N (2005) Anopheles maculi- pennis complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Guilan Province of Iran. The 13th Ira- nian Biology Conference and the First International Conference of Biology,23–25 August 2005, Rasht, Iran. p. 92. Harbach RE (1988) The mosquitoes of thesubgenus Culex in southwestern Asia and Egypt (Diptera: Culicidae). Con- trib Am Ent Inst. 24: 1–240.
Harbach RE (2007 onwards) Mosquito Taxonomic Inventory. Available at: http://mosquito-taxonomic-inventory. info/ (accessed 25 May 2011).
Horsfall WR (1955) Mosquitoes. Their Bio- nomics and Relation to Disease. Haf- ner Publishing, New York.
Lotfi MD (1973) Iranian species of genus Culex II Report of four species of lar- vae and 14 adult species. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 66: 204–207.
Macan TT (1950) Anopheles and Malaria in the Near East III. The Anopheline Mosquitoes of Iraq and North Persia. London School of Hygiene and Tropi- cal Medicine Research Memoir No 7, HK and Lewis Co Ltd, London.
Manouchehri AV, Rohani F (1975) Notes on the ecology of Anopheles dthali Patton in southern Iran. Ann Trop Med Para- sit. 69: 393–397.
Manouchehri AV, Javadian E, Eshghy N, Motabar M (1976) Ecology of Anopheles stephensi Liston in southern Iran. Trop Geogr Med. 28: 228–232.
Marsh F (1933) New species of Anopheles (Myzomyia group) from south-west Persia. Stylops. 2: 193–197.
Momeni S, Manouchehri AV, Zaim M, Mottaghi M (1992) The distinguish between the species of Anopheles macu- lipennis complex by using of egg char- acters in Gilan and Mazandaran Prov- inces, northern areas of Iran 1990–1991. Iranian Congress of Malaria, 22–26
February 1992, Zahedan, Iran. p. 29. Moosa Kazemi SH, Karimian F, Davari B (2010) Culicinae mosquitoes in Sanan- daj County, Kurdistan Province, west- ern Iran. J Vector Borne Dis. 47: 103-107.
Mousakazemi S, Zaim M, Zahraii A (2000) Fauna and ecology of Culicidae of the Zarrin-Shahr and Mobarakeh area in Isfahan Province. Armaghan Danesh, J Yasuj Univ Med Sci. 5: 46–54 [Persian with English abstract].
Naficy K, Saidi S (1970) Serological survey on viral antibodies in Iran. Trop Geogr Med. 2: 183–188.
Oshaghi MA, Shemshad Kh, Yaghobi-Er- shadi MR, Pedram M, Vatandoost H, Abaie MR, Akbarzadeh K, Mohtarami F (2007) Genetic structure of the malaria vector Anopheles superpictus in Iran using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COI and COII) and morphol- ogic markers: A new species complex? Acta Trop. 101: 241–248.
Oshaghi MA, Yaghobi-Ershadi MR, Shem- shad Kh, Pedram M, Amani H (2008) The Anopheles superpictus complex: introduction of a new malaria vector complex in Iran. Bull Soc Pathol Exot.101: 429–434.
Reinert JF (2001) Revised list of abbrevia- tion for genera and subgenera of Culi- cidae (Diptera) and the notes on ge- neric and subgeneric changes. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 17: 51–55.
Saebi ME (1987) Morphological Study on Anopheline Larvae and their Distribu- tion in Iran. [PhD Dissertation]. School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran [Per- sian].
Saidi S, Tesh R, Javadian E, Nadim A (1976) The prevalence of human in- fection of West Nile in Iran. Iran J Publ Health. 5: 8–14.
Sedaghat MM, Linton Y-M, Oshaghi MA, Vatandoost H, Harbach RE (2003) The Anopheles maculipennis complex (Dip- tera; Culicidae) in Iran: molecular char- acterization and recognition of a new species. Bull Entomol Res. 93: 527–535.
Service MW (1993) Mosquitoes (Culicidae).In: Lane RP, Crosskey RW (Eds) Medical Insects and Arachnids. Chap- man and Hall, London, pp. 120–240.
Shahgudian ER (1960) A key to anophelines of Iran. Acta Med Iran. 3: 38–48.
WHO (1975) Manual on Practical Entomol- ogy in Malaria. Part II. Methods and Techniques. WHO, Geneva.
Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Zaim M, Manouche- hri AV (1986) Studies on the biology of the mosquitoes in the district of Minab, Hormozgan Province, Iran, (1983–84)1-Characteristcs of the larval breeding sites. J Environ Stud. 13: 17–39 [Persian with English abstract]. Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Namazi J, Piazak N
(2001) Bionomics of Anopheles sa- charovi in Ardebil Province, north- western Iran during a larval control program. Acta Trop. 78: 207–215.
Zaim M, Cranston PS (1986) Checklist and keys to the Culicinae of Iran (Diptera; Culicidae). Mosq Syst. 18: 233–245.
Zaim M (1987a) The mosquito fauna of Ka- shan, public health importance and con- trol. Desert, Sci Res. 18: 1-41 [Persian].
Zaim M (1987b) The distribution and larval habitat characteristics of Iranian Cu- licinae. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 3:568–573.
Zaim M, Subbarao SK, Manouchehri AV, Cochrane AH (1993) Role of Anophe- les culicifacies s.l. and An. pulcherri- mus in malaria transmission in Ghass- reghand (Baluchistan), Iran. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 9: 23–26.
Zaini A, Janbakhsh B, Manouchehri A (1975) Characteristics of breeding places of Anopheles stephensi in city of Bandar-Abbas. Iran J Publ Health. 4:114–119 [Persian with English ab- stract].
Zolotarev ER (1945) Anopheles maculipen- nis of northern Iran. Med Parasitol Parasit Dis. 14: 50–57 [Russian].