Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases 2018-10-10T14:42:40+0330 Dr. Hasan Vatandoost Open Journal Systems Bioecology of Dominant Malaria Vector, Anopheles superpictus s.l. Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae) In Iran 2018-10-10T14:14:54+0330 Hassan Vatandoost Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd Ahmad Raeisi Mohammad Reza Abai Fatemeh Nikpour <p><strong>Background:</strong> Malaria continues to be a main vector-borne public health problem in Iran. The endemic foci of the dis­ease are mainly located in south-eastern part of the country. Iran is now launching the elimination of malaria. Studies on the bioecology and susceptibility of malaria vectors to insecticide are essential in this phase.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The literature on bio-ecology of <em>Anopheles superpictus</em> s.l. Grassi was reviewed in Iran in more than half a century. Different aspects including, distribution, key identification, larval habitats, flight range, seasonal activities, irritability/susceptibility to insecticides, and anthropophilicity index were identified.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The adult females of <em>An. superpictus</em> s.l. were susceptible to all WHO-recommended imagicides except DDT. Distribution, morphology, sibling species, larval habitat, flight range, Irritability tests, sustainability index, blood feed­ing preference and related factors were discussed in details</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Results of the evaluating will help for decision making of authorities for vector control<strong>.</strong></p> 2018-09-30T00:00:00+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Toxicological Analysis of Insects on the Corpse: a Valuable Source of Information in Forensic Investigations 2018-10-10T14:19:55+0330 Mojtaba Salimi Yavar Rassi Omid Chatrabgoun Artin Kamali Mohammad Ali Oshaghi Vida Shiri-Ghaleh Mehrdad Moradi Sayena Rafizadeh Kameran Akbarzadeh Seyedeh Zahra Parkhideh <p><strong>Background:</strong> Entomotoxicology as a subset of forensic entomology can be used by analysis of carcass feeding in­sects to detecting of drugs or toxins, as well as the cause and manner of death in cases of ante-mortem drugs intoxi­cation. Morphine is one of the deacetylate metabolites of heroin. The aim of this study was to determine the presence and quantity of morphine in insects on the carcass and compare them with decomposing carcass.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Field of this study was in Chalabeh District and toxicological tests were carried out at the Department of Forensic Toxicology, Legal Medicine Center, Kermanshah, Iran in 2017. Morphine was inoculated into live rabbit as experimental model at concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50mg/ml, similar to those normally encountered in human over­doses, then quality and quantity of morphine were determined in insects such as <em>Chrysomya albiceps </em>(as the first wave of insect succession on human cadavers) fed on carcass.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Quantitative assessment at larvae showed that morphine was detected in all larvae (feeding and post feeding stage) fed on tissues from carcasses administered morphine, except for post-feeding larvae from R1 which received 12.5mg/ml dosage of morphine.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Necrophagous insects are an indicator on the scene of crime and a potential source of information about the antemortem situation. Detection of drug in insects which is actually a reflection of the cause of death is possible.</p> 2018-09-30T00:00:00+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Richness and Diversity of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in North Khorasan Province, Northeast of Iran 2018-10-10T14:23:27+0330 Kourosh Arzamani Hassan Vatandoost Yavar Rassi Amir Ahmad Akhavan Mohammad Reza Abai Mohammad Alavinia Kamran Akbarzadeh Mehdi Mohebali Sayena Rafizadeh <p><strong>Background:</strong> We aimed to determine the species composition, richness and diversity indices of the Phlebotomine sand flies at different topographic condition in visceral (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) foci in the northeast of Iran.<strong><br />Methods:</strong> This cross-sectional study was conducted during 2016 in North Khorasan Province. The sampling was focused on rural regions, where human cases of VL and/or CL were diagnosed and reported during last 5 years. Sand flies were collected three times each twenty days during peak periods of seasonal activity. Seven collection methods were used. Some Alpha and Beta diversity indices were calculated.<strong><br />Results:</strong> Overall, 7253 sand flies were collected and identified. They were from 19 species of Phlebotominae sand­flies. <em>Phlebotomus sergenti </em>and <em>Ph. papatasi </em>were the most prevalent (84.9%) species in the study area. Species rich­ness (S) was very different in three areas and were18, 8, and 4 respectively but Evenness (E) were 0.357, 0.345, and 0.380, so evenness was almost equal in the study areas. Shannon Index (H ) and Margalef Richness Index were cal­culated 1.033, 0.718, 0.527 and 2.117, 0.8998, 0.4006 respectively.<strong><br />Conclusion:</strong> The sand fly fauna in North Khorasan Province was very rich and often included some of the most im­portant proven or suspected vectors of leishmaniasis. Species diversity indices (Shannon index, and Simpson’s in­dex) were not high due to decreasing in evenness. The Margalef richness index could accurately reflect the biodiver­sity of sand flies between three subtidal locations.</p> 2018-06-25T00:00:00+0430 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fauna and Larval Habitats Characteristics of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Golestan Province, Northeast of Iran, 2014–2015 2018-10-10T14:26:38+0330 Aioub Sofizadeh Hamid Reza Shoraka Fatemeh Mesgarian Ghorban Mohammad Ozbaki Abdolsamad Gharaninia Ebrahim Sahneh Rohollah Dankoob Ali Malaka Saeid Fallah Shamsaddin Nemani <p><strong>Background: </strong>Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) is one of the most medically important families of Diptera. The aims of this study were to determine fauna and larval habitat characteristics of mosquitoes in Golestan Province, during 2014–15.<strong><br />Methods: </strong>This study was conducted in larval habitats of mosquitoes and installed ovitraps in 14 districts of Golestan Province, Northern Iran in 2015. Samples were collected with a scoop by ladle handling for entomology. The col­lected larvae were transferred to Laboratory of Medical Entomology in lactophenol solution. Then microscopic slides were prepared using de Faure's formula. Species of each sample was recognized using diagnostic criteria to identify the Culicidae species. Characteristics of larval breeding places were studied based on the habitat type (Permanent or temporary), water conditions (Clear or turbid, stagnant or running), vegetation (out, in, underwater vegetation or without vegetation), sunlight exposure (Full or partial sunlight) and so on. Data were analyzed using SPSS.<strong><br />Results:</strong><strong> </strong>Overall, 5661 third- and fourth- instars larvae of mosquitoes were collected and 5 genera and 14 species were identified: <em>Anopheles hyrcanus</em>,<em> An. maculipennis</em>,<em> An. pseudopictus</em>,<em> An. superpictus</em>, <em>Culex hortensis</em>,<em> Cx. mimiticus</em>,<em> Cx. perexiguus</em>, <em>Cx. pipiens</em>,<em> Cx. pusillus</em>, <em>Cx. theileri</em>,<em> Cx. tritaeniohynchus</em>, <em>Culiseta longiareolata</em>, <em>Och­lerotatus caspius</em>, <em>Uranotaenia unguiculata. Culex pipiens </em>was recognized as predominant species of the family. Among the detected species, <em>Cx. pusillus</em> reported for the first time from Golestan Province.<strong><br />Conclusion: </strong>Due to the high species diversity of Culicidae, ecology of medical important species such as <em>Cx. pipiens</em> and <em>Cx. tritaeniorhynchus</em> needs more investigations.</p> 2018-09-30T00:00:00+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tick Ectoparasites of Animals in Borderline of Iran-Iraq and Their Role on Disease Transmission 2018-10-10T14:28:41+0330 Omid Banafshi Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd Mohamad Karimi Faezeh Faghihi Mojtaba Beik-Mohammadi Sahere Gholami Siavash Javaherizadeh Hamideh Edalat Hassan Vatandoost Zakkyeh Telmadarraiy <p><strong>Background</strong>: Since ticks are potent vectors of various diseases, identification of these species are clinically important to protect the public health and control veterinary problems in the communities. We aimed to figure out the frequency of ticks on cows, goats, sheep, lambs, turtles and also obscure hosts in Kurdistan Province, bordered with Iraq June 2012 to May 2013.<strong><br />Methods</strong>: The hosts were selected randomly and examined individually for tick infestation. In case of infestation, ticks were collected using forceps and then preserved in 70% ethyl alcohol. All collected specimens were preserved in tubes and relative information was recorded and then identified based on morphological characteristics.<strong><br />Results</strong>: Totally, 1209 ticks were collected. The prevalence of ticks on cows, sheep, goats, lambs, turtles, poultry and obscure hosts was 11.33%, 55.41%, 6.53%, 5.95%, 0.9%, 8.02% and 11.82% respectively. The mean number of ticks on each animal was 1.6. Number of 5 genera, including <em>Rhipicephalus</em>,<em> Argas</em>,<em> Ornithodoros</em>,<em> Hyalomma </em>and <em>Haem­aphysalis </em>and 9 species; including <em>R. sanguineus</em> (60.05%), <em>R. bursa</em> (0.08),<em> Hy. anatolicum</em> (12.33), <em>Hy. asiaticum</em> (1.49), <em>Hy. aegyptium</em> (0.91),<em> Hy. marginatum </em>(0.08), <em>Haemaphysalis parva </em>(4.22),<em> Hyalomma </em>sp. (0.99),<em> Orni­thodoros lahorensis </em>(11.83), and<em> Argas persicus</em> (8.02) were identified.<strong><br />Conclusion</strong>: The most abundant species in this study area was <em>Rh. sanguineus</em> (60.05%). Due to high prevalence of tick specimens and a variety of collected species from sheep (55.41%), the vaccination of sheep and control of tick vectors are recommended.</p> 2018-07-11T00:00:00+0430 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Biology of Meccus pallidipennis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) to Other Conditions than that Encountered in Their Native Habitat 2018-09-30T21:21:12+0330 Edson Franzim-Junior Maria Tays Mendes Ana Carolina Borella Marfil Anhê Thiago Alvares da Costa Marcos Vinicius Silva César Gómez Hernandez Afonso Pelli Helioswilton Sales-Campos Carlo Jose Freire Oliveira <p><strong>Background: </strong><em>Meccus pallidipennis</em> (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is only found in Mexico and is one of the most important vectors for <em>Trypanosoma cruzi</em> transmission there. Because data concerning the ability of this bug to adapt to different environments are scarce, we aimed to elucidate its biology, behavior and ability to acclimatize to different environ­mental conditions.<strong><br />Methods:</strong> From the eclosion of 90 1<sup>st</sup> instar nymphs, development was followed until the adult phase. Adults were fed after 30 days of fasting, and the average amount of blood ingested, the time between the beginning of the blood meal and the production of feces, and the frequency of stools/insect were recorded during their meals. After taking a blood meal, couples were isolated and monitored for 21 days, during which eggs were collected weekly.<strong><br />Results: </strong>The development of <em>M. pallidipennis</em> took 171.74±7.03 days to complete its life cycle, and females ingested larger amounts of blood than males. Oviposition was constant and did not demonstrate a significant decrease during this study.<strong><br />Conclusion:</strong> <em>Meccus pallidipennis</em> was able to acclimatize to fluctuating laboratorial conditions other than those naturally found in Mexico.</p> 2018-07-17T00:00:00+0430 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Safety Evaluation of Nano-Liposomal Formulation of Amphotericin B (SinaAmpholeish) in Animal Model as a Candidate for Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis 2018-10-10T14:33:03+0330 Seyed Ebrahim Eskandari Alireza Firooz Mansour Nassiri-Kashani Mahmoud Reza Jaafari Amir Javadi Akram Miramin-Mohammadi Hossein Valian-Keshavarz Ali Khamesipour <p><strong>Background:</strong> Development of a topical treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an important step in the im­provement of lesion management. Amphotericin B (AmB) is effective against <em>Leishmania</em> species but it is toxic, a Nano-liposomal form of AmB with a size of about 100nm (Lip-AmB) was developed and showed to be effective against <em>Leishmania</em> <em>major</em>, and<em> Leishmania tropica in vitro</em> and against <em>L. major in vivo</em> in animal model. This study was designed to check the irritancy Draize test in rabbits and was completed in the Center for Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy, TUMS, in 2012.<strong><br>Methods:</strong> Twenty rabbits in 3 steps were housed individually with artificial lighting (12/12h light/dark). SinaAm­pholeish cream or empty liposomes (prepared under GMP condition at Minoo Company, Tehran, Iran), was applied on a gauze patch and the patches were placed on the designated sites of the skin in the back of the rabbits. At 48 and 72h later, the erythema and oedema were checked, scored and recorded.<strong><br>Results:</strong> The erythema score in rabbits was 0.83<span style="text-decoration: underline;">+</span>0.41 for the SinaAmpholeish and 0.5<span style="text-decoration: underline;">+</span>0.55 for empty liposomes (P= 0.16). The average score for oedema was 0.67<span style="text-decoration: underline;">+</span>0.52 for SinaAmpholeish and 0.33<span style="text-decoration: underline;">+</span>0.52 for empty liposomes (P= 0.16).<strong><br>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong> Based on skin irritancy reactions the topical formulation of SinaAmpholeish is safe and could be further checked in human trials.</p> 2018-07-18T00:00:00+0430 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ixodid Tick Vectors of Wild Mammals and Reptiles of Southern India 2018-10-10T14:35:46+0330 K. G. Ajith Kumar Reghu Ravindran Joju Johns George Chandy Kavitha Rajagopal Leena Chandrasekhar Ajith Jacob George Srikanta Ghosh <p><strong>Background:</strong> We aimed to focus on the ixodid ticks parasitizing wild mammals and reptiles from Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, Western Ghat, southern India.<strong><br />Methods: </strong>The taxonomic identification of ticks collected from wild mammals and reptiles was performed based on the morphology of adults.<strong><br />Results: </strong>We revealed eight species of ticks including, <em>Amblyomma integrum</em>, <em>Rhipicephalus </em>(<em>Boophilus</em>)<em> annulatus</em>, <em>Haemaphysalis </em>(<em>Kaiseriana</em>)<em> spinigera</em>, <em>H. </em>(<em>K.</em>)<em> shimoga</em>, <em>H. </em>(<em>K.</em>)<em> bispinosa</em>, <em>H. </em>(<em>Rhipistoma</em>) <em><span style="text-decoration: underline;">i</span>ndica</em>, <em>Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides</em> and <em>R. sanguineus  </em>s.l.<em> </em>collected from nine species of wild mammals while four tick species <em>Ablyomma kraneveldi</em>,<em> A. pattoni</em>,<em> A. gervaisi</em> and <em>A. javanense</em> parasitizing on four species of reptiles. The highest host rich­ness was shown by <em>H. </em>(<em>K.</em>)<em> bispinosa</em> and <em>R. haemaphysaloides</em> parasitizing six and five different host species, re­spectively.  Reports of <em>R. </em>(<em>B.</em>)<em> annulatus</em> on sambar deer, <em>A. javanense</em> and <em>A. kraneveldi</em> on python as well as <em>A. pat­toni</em> on Indian rat snake are the new host records from this region.<strong><br />Conclusion: </strong>Eight species of ticks parasitizing on nine species of wild mammals and four species of parasitizing on four species of reptiles were identified. The highest host richness was shown by <em>H. </em>(<em>K</em>.)<em> bispinosa</em> and <em>R. haemaphy­saloides</em>. <em>H. spinigera </em>as the vector of KFD was also identified in this study.</p> 2018-07-25T00:00:00+0430 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Comparative Study of Energy Contents in Mosquito Vectors of Malaria and Dengue Prevailing in Jodhpur City (Thar Desert) of Rajasthan State, India 2018-10-10T14:37:43+0330 Suman Sundar Mohanty Sunita Meena Phool Chand Kanojia <p><strong>Background: </strong>Transmission of malaria and dengue in the desert part of India is mainly caused by <em>Anopheles ste­phensi</em> and <em>Aedes aegypti</em> respectively. The maintenance and transmission of the pathogens that cause malaria and dengue are dependent on the physiology of the mosquito vectors. We aimed to measure the energy contents in the mosquitoes transmitting malaria and dengue in the desert part of the country.<strong><br />Methods: </strong>Immature stages of mosquitoes were collected from six different larval habitats situated in Jodhpur City of Rajasthan state, India. The immature stages of both the mosquitoes were collected once in fortnightly from each loca­tion. Quantitative estimations of the lipid, glucose, and glycogen of the laboratory-reared and field collected <em>An. stephensi</em> and <em>Ae. aegypti</em> were made by spectrophotometric method. The energy contents of the larvae, pupae, fe­males, and males were estimated in triplicates on six different occasions.<strong><br />Results: </strong>The lipid content of laboratory-reared larvae, pupae and female mosquitoes of <em>An. stephensi</em> and <em>Ae. aegypti </em>was found to be lower than their conspecific field-collected specimens. Whereas, the glycogen content in the la­boratory-reared larvae, pupae and female mosquitoes of <em>An. stephensi</em> and <em>Ae. aegypti</em> was higher than that of their conspecific field-collected specimens. The glucose content in all the stages of the laboratory-reared <em>An. stephensi</em> was lower than their conspecific field-collected specimens except in few cases.<strong><br />Conclusion: </strong>The higher amount of lipid in field-collected mosquitoes may be because of the availability of food in the natural habitat and adaptation of mosquitoes. Mosquitoes living in desert climate are physiologically better equipped to survive in the desert environment.</p> 2018-07-28T00:00:00+0430 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Species Composition and Some Biological Features of Scorpions in Kazerun District, Southern Iran 2018-10-10T14:39:27+0330 Mansour Nazari Ali Najafi Mohammad Reza Abai <p><strong>Background: </strong>Scorpions have medical importance in the studied area with 2377 cases of envenoming during past six years. This study was the first to explore the scorpion species and dispersion in the Kazerun District during 2014–2015.<strong><br />Methods</strong>: The studied sites were selected based on different topographic conditions such as plain, foothill and mountainous which formed four geographical zones with three villages in each zone. The sampling was carried out twice each month throughout the year. Daytime collections were carried out using hand digging tools for moving stones and excavate the borrows, as well as night sampling, is done with the black light device. The co­ordinate of locations was recorded with a GPS. The collected specimens were maintained in 70% ethanol and identified using authorized keys.<strong><br />Results</strong>: Overall, 800 scorpions were sampled from different parts of Kazerun District, bringing the species rich­ness to 9 belonged to 3 families of Buthidae, Scorpionidae, and Hemiscorpionidae. The <em>Mesobuthus eupeus </em>(84.6%) was prominent vice versa<em> M. caucasicus </em>(0.1%)<em> </em>had lowest abundance. Other species comprised <em>Comp­sobuthus matthiesseni</em> (5.3%), <em>Androctonus crassicauda </em>(5.0%), <em>Razianus zarudnyi </em>(2.0%), <em>Hemiscorpius lep­turus </em>(1.5%), <em>Orthochirus </em>sp (0.9%), <em>Hottentotta zagrosensis </em>(0.4%), and <em>Scorpio maurus </em>(0.3%). The sea­sonal activity of the scorpions showed a lower peak in Mar, with the main peaks in Aug for the dominant spe­cies. <em>Mesobuthus caucasicus </em>is recorded for the first time in the Fars Province, southern Iran.<strong><br />Conclusion</strong>: All the known dangerous scorpions, including <em>H. lepturus</em>, <em>M. eupeus </em>and <em>A. crassicauda </em>were re­vealed in the studied area.</p> 2018-08-21T00:00:00+0430 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Biochemical Basis of Cyfluthrin and DDT Resistance in Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) in Malarious Area of Iran 2018-10-10T14:41:04+0330 Mohammad Amin Gorouhi Mohammad Ali Oshaghi Hassan Vatandoost Ahmad Ali Enayati Mohamad Reza Abai Mohsen Karami Yaser Salim-Abadi Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd Abbas Aghaei-Afshar Azim Paksa Fatemeh Nikpoor <p><strong>Background:</strong><em> Anopheles stephensi</em> is a key urban malaria vector in the Indian subcontinent and Middle East includ­ing south and southeast of Iran. Wide application of insecticides resulted in resistance of this species to various insec­ticides in these regions. This study was conducted to reveal the role of metabolic mechanisms in the development of resistance in <em>An. stephensi</em> to DDT and cyfluthrin.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Field mosquito specimens were collected from Chabahar Seaport, southeast corner of Iran, in 2015. Insec­ticide susceptibility and enzyme assays were conducted as recommended by WHO<strong>. </strong></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Mean enzyme ratios were 3.95 and 3.04 for α- esterases and 2.40 and 1.97 for β- esterases in the DDT and cyfluthrin- resistant populations correspondingly compared with the susceptible strain. The GSTs enzyme mean ac­tivity ratios were 5.07 and 2.55 in the DDT and cyfluthrin- resistant populations compared with the susceptible beech strain. The cytochrome p450s enzyme ratios were 1.11 and 1.28 in the DDT and cyfluthrin- resistant populations respectively compared with the susceptible beech strain.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Metabolic mechanisms play a crucial role in the development of DDT and cyfluthrin resistance in <em>An. stephensi</em>, therefore, further evaluation of the mechanisms involved as well as implementation of proper insecticide resistance management strategies are recommended.</p> 2018-09-30T00:00:00+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Cross-Genera PCR Amplification of DNA from Apicomplexan Parasites 2018-10-10T14:42:40+0330 Philippe Gil de Mendonça <p class="Standard"><strong>Background:</strong> The discovery of an unexpected genetic sequence raised doubts about the specificity of a primer pair targeting <em>Babesia</em> spp. and <em>Theileria</em> spp. This study aimed to check the specificity of this primer pair.<strong><br />Methods:</strong> Conventional end-point PCR and real-time PCR protocols using primers targeting the 18S rRNA gene V4 hypervariable region of <em>Babesia</em> spp. and <em>Theileria</em> spp. were tested for potential cross-genera amplification using DNA from a palette of parasitic protists and pathogenic bacteria as a template. These investigations took place at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (Germany) in 2010 as part of the EDEN project.<strong></strong><strong><br />Results:</strong> Successful amplification was obtained with DNA from five apicomplexan genera: <em>Babesia</em>, <em>Theileria</em>,<em> Hepa­tozoon</em>, <em>Toxoplasma</em>, and <em>Hammondia</em>. No amplicons were obtained when DNA from <em>Leishmania infantum</em> or bacte­ria within the genera <em>Borrelia</em>, <em>Leptospira</em> or <em>Anaplasma</em> was used as a template.<strong><br />Conclusion:</strong> This cross-genera amplification ability is useful for the quick exclusion of many parasite species from PCR negative diagnostic samples. Accurate species identification from PCR positive samples requires genetic se­quencing of the amplicon.<strong></strong></p> 2018-08-07T00:00:00+0430 ##submission.copyrightStatement##