http://jad.tums.ac.ir/index.php/jad/issue/feed Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases 2019-01-19T08:59:22+0330 Dr. Hasan Vatandoost jad@tums.ac.ir Open Journal Systems http://jad.tums.ac.ir/index.php/jad/article/view/1034 A Review on Scorpionism in Iran 2019-01-19T08:31:05+0330 Rouhullah Dehghani dehghani37@yahoo.com Esmail Charkhloo dehghani37@yahoo.com Nedasadat Seyyedi-Bidgoli dehghani37@yahoo.com Elahe Chimehi dehghani37@yahoo.com Maedeh Ghavami-Ghameshlo dehghani37@yahoo.com <p><strong>Background:</strong> Scorpions are one of the most important venomous animals in Iran. Their sting has more prevalence in the south and southwest areas. The aim of this study was to introduce their sting agent species in the country.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Data were extracted by a mini review on scorpion stinging articles in Iran until early 2018 and then the sting agent species in each area were studied. Geographical and provincial distribution of each species also was provided.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> &nbsp;Twelve scorpion species are causative agents of sting. According to their deadly rate and clinical symptoms, some of them are considered the most dangerous venomous animals in Iran. Some death cases have been reported be­cause of the sting of 3 species of <em>Hemiscorpius lepturus</em><em>,</em> <em>H. acanthocercus</em> and<em> Androctonus crassicauda</em>. Remaining species have not deadly sting but because of their frequency, they encounter the individuals and cause the stinging.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The highest number of sting agents is in Khuzestan, however Gilan and Mazandaran have the lowest fre­quency. Because of the high prevalence of sting agent species in that province, the necessity of providing control and prevention programs is very important.</p> 2018-10-12T00:00:00+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jad.tums.ac.ir/index.php/jad/article/view/1001 Spironucleus muris and Eperythrozoon coccoides in Rodents from Northwestern Iran: Rare Infections 2019-01-19T08:33:57+0330 Soudabeh Heidari a-motevalli@tums.ac.ir Mehdi Mohebali a-motevalli@tums.ac.ir Zabihollah Zarei a-motevalli@tums.ac.ir Mehdi Nateghpour a-motevalli@tums.ac.ir Afsaneh Motevalli-Haghi a-motevalli@tums.ac.ir <p><!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:OfficeDocumentSettings> <o:RelyOnVML></o:RelyOnVML> <o:AllowPNG></o:AllowPNG> </o:OfficeDocumentSettings> </xml><![endif]--><!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:TrackMoves></w:TrackMoves> <w:TrackFormatting></w:TrackFormatting> <w:PunctuationKerning></w:PunctuationKerning> 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5"></w:LsdException> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="List Table 3 Accent 5"></w:LsdException> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="List Table 4 Accent 5"></w:LsdException> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="List Table 5 Dark Accent 5"></w:LsdException> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="List Table 6 Colorful Accent 5"></w:LsdException> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="List Table 7 Colorful Accent 5"></w:LsdException> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="List Table 1 Light Accent 6"></w:LsdException> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="List Table 2 Accent 6"></w:LsdException> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="List Table 3 Accent 6"></w:LsdException> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="List Table 4 Accent 6"></w:LsdException> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="List Table 5 Dark Accent 6"></w:LsdException> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="List Table 6 Colorful Accent 6"></w:LsdException> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="List Table 7 Colorful Accent 6"></w:LsdException> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--><!-- [if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;} </style> <![endif]--></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: normal;"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; color: black;">Background:</span></strong> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;">Rodents perform a crucial role in <span style="mso-no-proof: yes;">dispersal</span> of zoonosis causes globally. We aimed to <span style="mso-no-proof: yes;">investigation</span> about infection levels of parasitic agents in rodents’ population in Meshkinshahr areas, northwest of Iran from Apr to Sep 2014.</span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;">Methods:</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;"> T<span class="st1">wo hundred four </span>rodents were trapped and <span style="mso-no-proof: yes;">anaesthetized</span>. A sample of blood was collected via cardi­opuncture from each one. Thin and thick blood smears were prepared and stained with Giemsa. All stained smear were examined under light microscopy with high magnification by two expert microscopists. Every suspected uni­cellular observed were measured microscopically and compared with key references to diagnose.</span><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;"><br>Results: </span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;">Captured rodents were identified as three genera <span style="mso-no-proof: yes;">including</span> <em>Meriones <span style="mso-no-proof: yes;">persicus</span></em>, <em>Mus musculus</em>, <em>Cricetulus <span style="mso-no-proof: yes;">migraturius</span></em>.</span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"> Protozoa identified in this study were </span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;">included of<em> <span style="mso-no-proof: yes;">Spironucleus</span> <span style="mso-no-proof: yes;">muris</span> </em>and </span><em><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">Eperythrozoon <span style="mso-no-proof: yes;">coccoides</span>, </span></em><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">t</span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;">hese parasites</span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;">were observed in blood smear of 0.98% of rodents. <em><span style="mso-no-proof: yes;">S.</span> <span style="mso-no-proof: yes;">muris</span> </em>and<em> E. <span style="mso-no-proof: yes;">coccoides</span> </em>were seen in <em>M. mus­culus</em> and</span> <em><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;">C. <span style="mso-no-proof: yes;">migraturius</span></span></em><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;">, respectively<em><strong>.<br></strong></em></span><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;">Conclusion:</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;"> The present study increases awareness about Eperythrozoonosis in rodents and its potential transmis­sion to domestic animals and even to <span style="mso-no-proof: yes;">human</span> in rural districts in Iran. Moreover,</span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;">the attack of <em>Spironucleus</em> <span style="mso-no-proof: yes;">on</span> <span class="alt-edited">the mucus</span> of colon and its systemic risk was confirmed.</span></p> 2018-10-12T00:00:00+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jad.tums.ac.ir/index.php/jad/article/view/1016 Emergence and Associated Risk Factors of Vector Borne West Nile Virus Infection in Ilorin, Nigeria 2019-01-19T08:35:56+0330 Olatunji Matthew Kolawole omk@unilorin.edu.ng Glory Adelaiye omk@unilorin.edu.ng Jeremiah Ikhevha Ogah omk@unilorin.edu.ng <p><strong>Background:</strong> West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne viral pathogen that is the causative agent of West Nile fever and encephalitis. Diagnostic tools for WNV infection in Nigeria are not well established hence the current prevalence rate of WNV infection in Nigeria is unknown. We aimed to establish the serological prevalence of WNV infection in febrile patients in Ilorin, Nigeria in 2016, and to assess the risk factors associated with the acquisition of the virus.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a cross-sectional study involving the screening of subjects presenting with febrile illnesses. While specific IgM ELISA was used to determine the seroprevalence, a closed-ended questionnaire was used to as­certain the risk factors associated with this viral infection.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Fifteen (7.5%) of the respondents were positive for WNV infection. Subjects living in areas in close prox­imity to trees and bushes (P= 0.011) and stagnant water (P= 0.001) were at a higher risk of having WNV infection. Other risk factors associated with WNV among the respondents include the none use of insecticide (P= 0.001), sitting out at night (P= 0.044), HIV positivity (P= 0.003) and having an organ transplant (P= 0.002).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study clearly shows a considerable WNV infection in Ilorin, with the presence of factors that can promulgate an outbreak, hence a need for further surveillance in the study area.</p> 2018-10-12T00:00:00+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jad.tums.ac.ir/index.php/jad/article/view/1018 Wing Geometry Analysis of Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae), a Dengue Vi-rus Vector, from Multiple Geographical Locations of Samut Songkhram, Thailand 2019-01-19T08:38:21+0330 Tanawat Chaiphongpachara tanawat.ch@ssru.ac.th Nattapon Juijayen tanawat.ch@ssru.ac.th Kitthisak Khlaeo Chansukh tanawat.ch@ssru.ac.th <p><strong>Background:</strong> Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is a mosquito-borne disease and remains a major public health problem, especially in tropical and temperate countries. Studying wing morphometric of <em>Aedes aegypti</em> as a mosquito vector of DHF can help to better understand biological process of the mosquito adaptation to the environment. We aimed to study the geometric morphometric of <em>Ae. aegypti</em> from multiple geographical areas.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Samples were collected from Samut Songkhram Province in Thailand, including coastal, residential and cultivated areas, by Ovitrap once per month during Oct to Nov 2016.<br><strong>Results:</strong> According to size variation analysis of <em>Ae. aegypti</em>, the female mosquito in a cultivated area was significant­ly different from those in the coastal and residential areas (P&lt; 0.05). Whereas male <em>Ae. aegypti</em> in a cultivated area were significantly different from those in a residential area (P&lt; 0.05). The shape variation of both female and male <em>Ae. aegypti </em>from all areas was statistically different (P&lt; 0.05).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Normally, living organisms, including mosquitoes, are adapted to their environment. The studied geo­graphical locations affect <em>Ae. aegypti</em> morphology.</p> 2018-10-12T00:00:00+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jad.tums.ac.ir/index.php/jad/article/view/1019 Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oil of Syzygium aromaticum (Clove) in Com-parison with Its Major Constituent, Eugenol, against Anopheles stephensi 2019-01-19T08:40:31+0330 Mahmoud Osanloo aamani@tums.ac.ir Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat aamani@tums.ac.ir Fariba Esmaeili aamani@tums.ac.ir Amir Amani aamani@tums.ac.ir <p><strong>Background: </strong>In this study, larvicidal activity of clove essential oil (EO), as a green and relatively potent larvicide, was compared with its main constituent, Eugenol, against <em>Anopheles stephensi</em>.<br><strong>Methods: </strong>High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the amount of eugenol, major constituent of clove EO. In addition, larvicidal activity of clove EO and eugenol was evaluated against <em>An. stephensi.<br></em><strong>Results:</strong> The amount of eugenol in clove EO was determined as 67% using HPLC analysis. LC<sub>50</sub> and LC<sub>90</sub> of clove EO (57.49 and 93.14ppm, respectively) were significantly lower than those of eugenol (86.96 and 128.18 ppm, re­spectively).<br><strong>Conclusion: </strong>EO showed more effective than its major component. Considering the lower cost of the essential oil and lower risk in occurrence of resistance in larvae, use of clove EO is preferred as larvicide in comparison with eugenol, against <em>An. stephensi.</em></p> 2018-10-12T00:00:00+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jad.tums.ac.ir/index.php/jad/article/view/1026 Evaluation of Pyrethroid Susceptibility in Culex pipiens of Northern Izmir Province, Turkey 2019-01-19T08:42:55+0330 Onur Guntay savas.izzetoglu@ege.edu.tr Mehmet Salih Yikilmaz savas.izzetoglu@ege.edu.tr Huseyin Ozaydin savas.izzetoglu@ege.edu.tr Savas Izzetoglu savas.izzetoglu@ege.edu.tr Asli Suner savas.izzetoglu@ege.edu.tr <p><strong>Background: </strong>Mosquitoes, being a nuisance species, are considered as one of the most important species in public health control programs due to their role as a vector in mosquito-borne diseases observed in humans and animals. We evaluated the susceptibility status of <em>Culex pipiens</em> collected from northern Izmir, Turkey in 2011-16.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Mosquito larvae, collected from three different locations in northern İzmir, were reared in the laboratory. Adult susceptibility bioassays were performed using the WHO insecticide-impregnated papers including deltamethrin 0.05%, permethrin 0.75%, α-cypermethrin 0.05% and cyfluthrin 0.15%. In addition, adult bioassays were performed after the pre-exposure to piperonyl butoxide (PBO) to determine the contribution of P450 detoxification enzymes to the phenotypic resistance.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In all of the three populations, high levels of resistance were observed (mortalities&lt;63%) to all of the four pyrethroids. Different pyrethroids but with the same mode of action can exhibit significantly different phenotypic re­sistance in a single population. PBO bioassays also showed that P450 detoxification enzymes can have diverse effects on different pyrethroids.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Using just one chemical in a class of insecticide can be misleading for resistance studies.</p> 2018-10-12T00:00:00+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jad.tums.ac.ir/index.php/jad/article/view/1027 Geographical Features and Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Erzincan, Turkey 2019-01-19T08:44:45+0330 Aytekin Cikman draytekin65@hotmail.com Merve Aydin draytekin65@hotmail.com Baris Gulhan draytekin65@hotmail.com Faruk Karakecili draytekin65@hotmail.com Levent Demirtas draytekin65@hotmail.com Ozan Arif Kesik draytekin65@hotmail.com <p><strong>Background: </strong>We aimed to determine the geographical features and seroprevalence of <em>Borrelia burgdorferi</em> in Erzincan, Turkey, which has a high tick population due to its geographical position and climatic conditions.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>From January to December 2014, 368 people living in Erzincan, northeastern Turkey were enrolled. <em>B. burgdorferi</em>&nbsp;IgG antibodies were investigated in the collected serum samples using the ELISA method in 2015. Positive and borderline results were confirmed using the Western Blot (WB) method.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> <em>Borrelia burgdorferi</em> IgG positivity was found to be 4.1% by ELISA and 2.17% by WB. Of the seropositive people according to WB, 25% resided in areas within 2000m of rivers, 50% in areas with a slope of 0–5°, and 62.5% in areas with an altitude of lower than 1500 meters.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The seroprevalence of Lyme borreliosis was high in Erzincan, particularly among people engaged in animal husbandry in rural areas. In addition, the seroprevalence of <em>Borrelia </em>varied according to geographical features, increasing in areas with a lower slope and altitude.</p> 2018-10-12T00:00:00+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jad.tums.ac.ir/index.php/jad/article/view/1036 Chemical Composition and Repellency of Origanum vulgare Essential Oil against Cimex lectularius under Laboratory Conditions 2019-01-19T08:47:14+0330 Mona Sharififard jahanifard-e@ajums.ac.ir Ismaeil Alizadeh jahanifard-e@ajums.ac.ir Elham Jahanifard jahanifard-e@ajums.ac.ir Changlu Wang jahanifard-e@ajums.ac.ir Mohammad Ebrahim Azemi jahanifard-e@ajums.ac.ir <p><strong>Background:</strong> The common bed bug (<em>Cimex lectularius</em>), a nocturnal blood-feeding ectoparasite, is considered an urban pest with public health importance in human environments. We aimed to determine the repellency effect of oregano essential oil, <em>Origanum vulgare</em>, against this pest under laboratory conditions.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The essential oil was prepared from dried leaves using hydro-distillation method. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) was used for analysis and identification of oregano essential oil compounds. Treated surface method in Petri dish was carried out to evaluate repellency potential of the oil using 4th and 5th instar nymphs and adults. The concentration-repellency response of oregano essential oil was calculated and compared with a commercial insect repellent stick containing 33% N, N-diethyl-<em>meta</em>-toluamide (DEET).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The oregano essential oil consisted of 158 compounds with terpineol (22.85%) and α–terpinene (20.60%) being the major components by volume. The EC<sub>50</sub> and EC<sub>99</sub> of oregano oil (effective concentrations causing 50% and 90% repellency of bed bugs) were 1.61 and 6.57mg/cm<sup>2</sup> at 9h after application, respectively. The 40% oregano es­sential oil exhibited 100% repellency against bed bug at 3, 5, 9 and 24h after application while the repellency index of DEET 33% was 100% at 3 and 5h and it decreased to 80% and 27% at 9 and 24 hours.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Oregano oil 40% exhibited more repellency compared to commercial insect repellent stick containing 33% DEET. Further studies are warranted to confirm the effectiveness of oregano essential oil in personal protecting against bed bug biting.</p> 2018-10-12T00:00:00+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jad.tums.ac.ir/index.php/jad/article/view/1037 Seasonal Activity of Adult Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Focus of Diro-filariasis and West Nile Infection in Northern Iran 2019-01-19T08:49:35+0330 Shahyad Azari-Hamidian azari@gums.ac.ir Behzad Norouzi azari@gums.ac.ir Ayoob Noorallahi azarihamidian@yahoo.com Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd azarihamidian@yahoo.com <p><strong>Background:</strong> Mosquito-borne arboviruses such as West Nile, dengue, Rift Valley fever, and Sindbis viruses and the nematode <em>Dirofilaria</em> are reported in Iran, but there is little information on the seasonal activity of their vectors in the country. We aimed to determine the seasonal activity of adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a focus of diro­filariasis and West Nile infection in Guilan Province, northern Iran.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Collections were carried out using light traps in seven counties at least two times from random sites and every two weeks from a fixed site (Pareh Village, Rudbar County) during Aug–Dec 2015 and Apr–Oct 2016.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Overall, 16357 adult mosquitoes comprising 18 species representing seven genera were identified. The most prevalent species were <em>Cx. theileri</em> (23.59%), <em>Cx. tritaeniorhynchus </em>(20.75%), <em>Cx. pipiens</em> (19.37%), <em>Ae. vexans</em> (18.18%), <em>An. pseudopictus </em>(10.92%) and <em>An. maculipennis </em>s.l. (5.48%). <em>Aedes pulcritarsis</em> and <em>Cx. perexiguus</em> were found for the first time in Guilan Province. The active season of adult mosquitoes extended from early May to early Oct in the fixed site. There was no significant regression between the abundance of adult mosquitoes and the meteor­ological data during active season in the fixed site (P&gt; 0.05, R<sup>2</sup>= 0.31).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Though no significant regression between the abundance of mosquitoes and the meteorological data was observed during active season, temperature and rice fields had a great influence in starting and ending active season in the region.</p> 2018-10-12T00:00:00+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jad.tums.ac.ir/index.php/jad/article/view/1038 Insecticidal and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Activity of Veratrum nigrum Alkaloidal Extract against the German Cockroach (Blattella germanica) 2019-01-19T08:52:41+0330 Xianghai Cai yuangang188@126.com Qingfeng Li yuangang188@126.com Lei Xiao yuangang188@126.com Hailiang Lu yuangang188@126.com Jian Tang yuangang188@126.com Jianbo Huang yuangang188@126.com Jianzhong Yuan yuangang188@126.com <p><strong>Background: </strong><em>Veratrum nigrum</em> (Liliaceae) is perennial medicinal plant widely used to treat various conditions. To de­ter­mine its insecticidal properties against the German cockroach (<em>Blattella germanica</em>), several laboratory tests were car­ried out.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A 4kg dry sample of <em>V. nigrum</em> root was purchased from the medicinal material market in Yunnan Province in 2015, China. In contact toxicity tests, <em>V. nigrum</em> alkaloidal extract was topically applied to the abdomen of cockroaches using a micro-applicator. In vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity tests were performed using a modified Ellman method.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong><em>Veratrum nigrum</em> alkaloidal extract was toxic to male adults and 4<sup>th</sup> nymphs cockroaches, with median lethal dose (LD<sub>50</sub>) values of 14.90µg/insect, 14.21µg/insect for adults and 41.45µg/insect, 39.01µg/insect for 4<sup>th</sup> nymphs after 24h and 48h exposure, respectively. There was a significant difference between adults and nymphs in terms of tolerance to <em>V. nigrum</em> alkaloidal extract. There was no significant difference in mortalities at 24h and 48h, the lethal effect of <em>V. nigrum</em> alkaloidal extract on German cockroach was quick. AChE activity tests showed that <em>V. nigrum</em> alkaloidal extract had an excellent inhibitory effect on AChE: inhibition in the 4<sup>th</sup> nymphs and male adults had 50% inhibiting concentra­tion (IC<sub>50</sub>) values of 3.56mg/ml and 5.78mg/ml respectively. The inhibitory effect of AChE activity was positively cor­related with inhibitory time (0–20min), at a concentration of 1mg/ml, inhibition of nymph and adult AChE activity had 50% inhibiting time (IT<sub>50</sub>) values of 8.34min and 16.75min, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong><em>V. nigrum</em> may be explored as a potential natural insecticide for control of the German cockroach.</p> 2018-10-12T00:00:00+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jad.tums.ac.ir/index.php/jad/article/view/1040 Impact of Flag Texture on Tick Sampling Efficiency 2019-01-19T08:55:06+0330 Philippe Gil de Mendonça pgm@cantab.net <p><strong>Background:</strong> There is a strong interest in tick-borne diseases worldwide due to their negative impact on both human and animal health. Epidemiological studies of tick-borne diseases depend on reliable data on tick population dynamics and activity patterns. Such data are essentially based on tick sampling in the field. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of cloth type on the efficiency of field sampling by the flagging technique.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The impact of cloth type on the efficiency of field sampling by the flagging technique was investigated by comparing tick sampling yields of two different fabrics, the Munich type (MUC) vs. the Oxford type (OX), based on 30 pairs of transect lines. Data analysis included classical statistics and computer modelling.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The MUC flag yielded nearly five times more larval ticks than the OX flag, whereas the differences in yields for nymphs and adult ticks were not statistically significant based on classical statistics.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The flag made of MUC type fabric, thanks to its tight and relatively flat texture, facilitates detection and collection of ticks from its surface. The OX flag, due to its loose texture, is unsuitable for the quantitative sampling of larval <em>Ixodes ricinus</em>.</p> 2018-10-12T00:00:00+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jad.tums.ac.ir/index.php/jad/article/view/1017 Designing and Introducing a New Artificial Feeding Apparatus for Sand Fly Rearing 2019-01-19T08:57:17+0330 Mahboubeh Fatemi aaakhavan@tums.ac.ir Zahra Saeidi aaakhavan@tums.ac.ir Parviz Noruzian aaakhavan@tums.ac.ir Amir Ahmad Akhavan aaakhavan@tums.ac.ir <p><strong>Background: </strong>Due to strict ethical rules, the risk of accidental disease transmission and the most importantly, inconven­ience regarding using of live animals, artificial feeding apparatus has been developed for colonization of haematophagous insects. Rearing of sandfly is more difficult than other haematophagous insects.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>In the current study, a new apparatus for membrane feeding of <em>Phlebotomus</em> <em>papatasi</em> was designed, made and compared with available apparatus in Sand Fly Insectary, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, in 2014.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In comparison to other apparatus designed for artificial feeding of other arthropods, our designed apparatus had the highest performance which after up to 1h, the majority of sand flies landed and took blood and among tested membranes, chicken skin was proved the most efficient membrane.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Sand fly artificial feeding apparatus can be used at least for rearing of <em>Ph. papatasi</em>.</p> 2018-10-12T00:00:00+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jad.tums.ac.ir/index.php/jad/article/view/780 Troubleshooting Real-Time PCR Screening for Leishmania infantum 2019-01-19T08:59:22+0330 Philippe Gil de MENDONCA philippe.gil.de.mendonca@gmail.com <p>N/A</p> 2018-12-25T08:40:46+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement##