Conducting International Diploma Course on Leishmaniasis and its Control in the Islamic Republic of Iran

  • Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi-Ershadi Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Amir Ahmad Akhavan Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Department of Chemical Pollutants and Pesticides, Institute for Environmental Research Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Mohammad Reza Shirzadi Zoonosis Control Department, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran
  • Yavar Rassi Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Ali Khamesipour Center for Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy (CRTSDL), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Hassan Vatandoost Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Department of Chemical Pollutants and Pesticides, Institute for Environmental Research Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Keywords: Leishmaniasis; Diploma course; Disease control; Iran

Abstract

Background: Leishmaniasis represents the important public health problem in the world. One of the main objectives of World Health organization is capacity building of managers and authorities who are involved with diseases control ac­tivities.Methods: The course was conducted in Esfahan Health Research and Training Center (E.H.R.T.C) in summer 2005 and 2009. The course carried out jointly by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOH) of Iran, World Health Or­ganization-Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office (WHO-EMRO) and School of Public health, Tehran University of Med­ical Sciences (SPH-TUMS) and designed for medical officers, senior technicians and managers involved in leish­mania­sis control. Prior to initiate the course, pre-test evaluations including different subjects on leishmaniasis and its control were carried out. The examinations include multiple choice questions. The duration of the course was 3 weeks. A total of 206 contact hours were taught. The main subjects were Basic epidemiology, Leishmaniasis parasitology, Leishmaniasis en­tomology, control of vectors and reservoirs, principles of integrated pest management, Field work and Planning. Dif­ferent methods of teaching including lecture, laboratory, workshop, team work, field exercise and presen­tation were used. Requirement for achievement of the course was to have at least 60% of the total mark for awarding the diploma certificate.Results: A total of 45 participants from Iraq, Afghanistan and Iran graduated from this course.Conclusion: The course is providing the skill for managers, how to combat against disease in their country and is paral­lel to the policy of the leishmaniasis control for capacity building in endemic areas of their countries.

References

1. Jhingran A, Chatterjee M, Madhubala R (2008) Leishmaniasis: Epidemiological trends and diagnosis in: Leishmania af-ter the genome by: Myler PJ and Fasel N, Caister Academic Press, Norfolk, UK, pp. 1–14.
2. Maroli M, Feliciangeli MD, Bichaud L, Charrel RN, Gradoni L (2012) Phlebotomine sand flies and the spread¬ing of leish-mani¬ases and other diseases of public health concern. Med Vet En¬tomol. 27(2): 123–147.
3. Choi CM, Lerner EA (2001) Leishmaniasis as an emerging infection. J Invest Der-matol Symp Proc. 6: 175–182.
4. Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Akhavan AA, Mohe¬bali M (2001) Monthly variation of Leish¬mania major MON-26 infection rates in Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) from rodent burrows in Badrood area of Iran. Med J Islam Re-pub Iran. 15 (3): 175–178.
5. Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR (2012) Phlebotom-ine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Iran and their role on Leishmania trans-mission. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 6(1): 1–17.
6. Shirzadi MR (2012) Cutaneous leishmania¬sis control guideline in Iran. Tehran: Zoon-oses Control Department, Center for Com-municable Diseases Control, Ministry of
Health and Medical Educa¬tion. 1: 12–7.
7. Akhavan AA, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Mir-hendi H, Alimohammadian MH, Rassi Y, Shareghi N, Jafari R, Arandian MH, Abdoli H, Ghanei M, Jalali-Zand N, Khamesipour A (2010) Molecular epizo-otiology of ro¬dent leishmaniasis in a hyperendemic area of Iran. Iran J Pub¬lic Health. 39(1): 1–7.
8. Mohebali M, Edrissian Gh.H, Nadim A, Hajjaran H, Akhoundi B, Hooshmand B, Zarei Sh, Arshi N, Mirsamadi K, Manou-chehri Naeini S, Mamish AA, Sanati AA (2011) Application of direct agglutination test (DAT) for the diagno-sis and seroepide-miological studies of visceral leishmaniasis in Iran. Iran J Parasitol. 1(1): 15–25.
9. Shirani-Bidabadi L, Zahraei-Ramazani A, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Rassi Y, Akha-van AA, Oshaghi MA, Enayati AA, Saeidi Z, Jafari R, Vatandoost H (2017) Assessing the insecticide susceptibility status of field population of Phleboto-mus papatasi (Dip¬tera: Psychodidae) in a hyperendemic area of zoonotic cuta-neous leishmaniasis in Esfahan Prov¬ince, Central Iran. Acta Trop. 176: 316–322
10. Saeidi Z, Vatandoost H, Akhavan AA, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Rassi Y, Alireza Sanei-Dehkordi (2012) Baseline suscep-tibility of a wild strain of Ph. papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) to DDT and py-rethroids in an endemic focus of zoono-tic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. Pest Manag Sci. 68(5): 669–675.
11. Saghafipour A, Vatandoost H, Zahraei-Ram-azani AR, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Rassi Y, Jooshin MK, Shirzadi MR, Akhavan AA (2017) Control of zoonotic cutane-ous leishmaniasis vector, Phlebotomus papatasi, using attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB). PloS One. 12(4): e0173558.
12. Aghaei-Afshar A, Vatandoost H, Sharifi I, Rassi Y, Abai MR, Oshaghi MA, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR (2013) First de-termination of impact and outcome in-di¬cators following indoor Residual spray¬ing (IRS) with deltamethrin in a new focus of anthroponotic cutaneous leish¬man¬iasis (ACL) in Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Dis. 3(1): 5–9.
13. Saghafipour A, Vatandoost H, Zahraei-Ram-azani AR, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Rassi Y, Shirzadi MR, Akhavan AA (2016) Spa-tial distribution of Phlebotomine sand fly species in Qom Province, central Iran. J Med Entomol. 54(1): 35–43.
14. Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Akhavan AA, Ja-hanifard E, Vatandoost H, Amin GH, Moosavi L, Zahraei-Ramazani AR, Abdoli H, Arandian MH (2006) Repel¬lency ef-fect of myrtle essential oil and DEEt against Phlebotomus papatasi un¬der la-boratory conditions. Iran J Pub Health. 35(3): 7–13.
15. Zahraei-Ramazani AR, Kumar D, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Naghian A, Shirzadi MR, Abdoli H, Soleimani H, Shareghi N, Ghanei M, Arandian MH, Hanafi-Bojd AA (2013) Sand flies of the subgenus Ad¬lerius (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an en-demic focus of visceral leishmaniasis and introduction of Phlebotomus (Ad-lerius co¬matus as a new record for Iran. J Arthro¬pod Borne Dis. 7(1): 1–7
16. Jahanifard E, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Akhavan AA, Shirzadi MR, Karimi A (2014) Diversity of sand flies (Dip¬tera: Psy-chodidae) in southwest Iran with em-phasize on synanthropy of Phleboto¬mus papatasi and Phlebotomus alexan¬dri. Acta Trop. 140: 173–180.
17. Akhavan AA, Veysi A, Arandian MH, Vatandoost H, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Hosseini M, Abdoli H, Heidari K, Sad-jadi A, Fadaei R, Ramazanpour J, Aminian K, Shirzadi MR, Jafari R (2014) Field evaluation of phostoxin and zinc phosphide for the control of zoono¬tic cutaneous leishmaniasis in a hy¬perendemic area, central Iran. J Vec-tor Borne Dis. 51 (4): 307–312.
18. Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Akhavan AA, Ja-hanifard E, Vatandoost H, Amin GH, Moosavi L, Zahraei-Ramazani AR, Abdoli H, Arandian MH (2006) Repel¬lency effect of myrtle essential oil and DEEt against Phlebotomus papatasi un¬der laboratory conditions. Iran J Pub Health. 35(3): 7–13.
19. Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR (2016) Control of phlebotomine sand flies in Iran, a re-view article. J Ar¬thro¬pod Borne Dis. 10(4): 429–444.
20. Veisi A, Vatandoost H, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Arandian MH, Jafari R, Hosseini M, Abdoli H, Rassi Y, Heidari K, Sad-jadi A, Fadaei R, Ramazanpour J, Aminian K, Shir¬zadi MR, Akhavan AA (2012) Comparative study on the effec-tiveness of Couma¬vec and zinc phos-phide in controlling zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in a hyperendemic focus in central Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 6(1): 18–27.
21. Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Akhavan AA, Zahraei-Ramazani AR (2003) Bionom-ics of Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an endemic focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in central Iran. J Vect Ecol. 30(1): 115–118.
Published
2019-10-01
How to Cite
1.
Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Akhavan AA, Shirzadi MR, Rassi Y, Khamesipour A, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Vatandoost H. Conducting International Diploma Course on Leishmaniasis and its Control in the Islamic Republic of Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 13(3):234-242.
Section
Review Article