Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases, the scientific publica­tion of the Iranian Society of Medical Entomology (ISME) is approved by the National Journal Commission, Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education. The journal publishes original research paper, short communica­tion, scientific note, case report, letter to the editor, and review article in English. The scope of papers comprises all aspects of arthropod borne diseases includ­ing:

● Systematics
● Vector ecology
● Epidemiology
● Immunology
● Parasitology
● Molecular biology
● Genetics
● Population dynamics
● Toxicology
● Vector control
● Diagnosis and treatment and other related subjects.


Current Issue

Vol 16 No 1 (2022)

Original Article

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 48 | views: 64 | pages: 1-12

    Background: Hemiscorpius lepturus is one of the most dangerous scorpions in Iran and the world. Numerous studies have been conducted on phospholipases, especially phospholipase D, in this scorpion’s venom, and the results have shown this protein to be the main cause of death. Therefore, one of the most effective ways of preventing fatalities is to produce a toxoid vaccine from the deadly toxin of the venom. The present study was conducted to assess the non-toxicity of this toxoid and the safety of the vaccine candidate in BALB/c mice.

    Methods: The production of interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 cytokines in the spleen cells of the mice was measured using ELISpot assay 28 days following immunization with rPLD toxoid.

    Results: The unpaired t-test results showed a significant increase in the concentration of IFN-γ cytokine in the vaccinat­ed mice (P= 0.001), indicating that the immune system is directed toward the Th1 pattern, while no significant differ­ence was observed in the levels of IL-4 (P= 0.16) despite an increase in this cytokine. The in-vivo tests showed that the mice immunized with interval doses of 80µg of toxoid were completely protected against 10 × the LD100 of the venom. Moreover, the toxoid had no dermonecrotic effects and caused no necrotic and inflammatory complications in the rabbit skin.

    Conclusion: As a vaccine, the toxoid has the potential to increase the Th1 cytokine response and, subsequently, in­crease acquired cellular immunity. Thus, this toxoid appears to be able to provide an effective vaccine against the ven­om of Hemiscorpius lepturus.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 35 | views: 51 | pages: 13–25

    Background: Androctonus crassicauda is the most medically relevant animal and understanding its morphological characteristics is essential in the production of antiscorpion sera.

    Methods: Adults of A. crassicauda were collected from different areas of Zanjan Province and the morphometric pa­rameters and the cuticular fluorescence patterns of samples were studied. The crude venom of samples was extracted by electric stimulation, and their biochemical properties were analyzed by the SDS-PAGE method.

    Results: Values of the morphometric parameters depended on sex and altitude of the area. Except for values of the pec­tinal organ, these parameters in females were higher than in males. No significant difference was in the number, shape, and intensity of cuticular fluorescence patterns. The body length of males in high and lowlands was 72.53±1.53 and 77.33±2.70mm, respectively. Females' body lengths in that area were 81.66±2.19 and 86.55±2.33mm, respectively. Analysis of toxin proteins showed two isotypes that the 12, 13, 15, 16, 18, and 19kDa proteins were in all areas. How­ever, the 41 and 74kDa proteins, and 46 and 63kDa proteins were detected in low and highlands, respectively.

    Conclusion: Black fat-tailed scorpion has a considerable dominancy and developing preventive programs and providing treatment facilities in studied areas are necessary. Values of the morphological parameters and venom electrophoresis patterns depended on the geographical location. Therefore, pool crude toxin is suggested for the production of effective antivenoms. Moreover, additional field complementary works in the geographic information system based niche model­ing and mass fingerprinting of scorpion venoms are suggested for screening effective isotypes.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 49 | views: 56 | pages: 26–33

    Background: A variety of haemoprotozoa including Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon cause infections in birds and are transmitted by some known vectors. These parasites cause anemia, low appetite, weakness and ultimate­ly death in birds. The present study was aimed to determine these parasites, in birds of Mazandaran and Golestan prov­inces in Iran.

    Methods: The project was performed on 340 live birds in 2016. The samples were collected from February to Septem­ber 2016, from each bird, two thin and thick blood smears were prepared and the remaining blood about 1ml was kept in EDTA-containing tubes for molecular studies. The slides were stained with 10% Giemsa, then examined microscopical­ly. About ten percent of the negative samples were considered for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique, using specific primers to diagnose Plasmodium and Haemoproteus spp. Electrophoresis was done for PCR products and rele­vant bands to the parasites were identified based on the size. The considered birds belonged to ducks, chickens, roosters, and pigeons.

    Results: From 340 microscopically examined blood samples 32 (9.5%) samples were positive. Twenty-five (7.35%) of them were infected with the genus Haemoproteus. Seven samples (14%) out of 50 microscopically negative samples were found as Haemoproteus or Plasmodium spp when PCR technique was employed.

    Conclusion: This study revealed the existence of malaria parasites and other haemosporidia in birds in Iran. Employing molecular methods (PCR examination) could detect more infections.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 40 | views: 70 | pages: 34–44

    Background: Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are haemotophagus insects and are vectors of many arthropod-borne diseases. Present study aimed to explore species composition, seasonal abundance, spatial distribution and physio-chemical properties of larval breeding sites of mosquitoes in District Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

    Methods: Both adults and larvae of mosquitoes were collected through light traps, insecticide spray, mouth aspirator and larval standard dipping method in District Mardan from May to November 2017. Water samples from larval sites were physio-chemically analysed.

    Results: 5078 (3704 adults and 1374 larvae) mosquito specimens were collected in Mardan, Katlang and Takhtbhai tehsils. Six species in four genera were reported. Culex pipiens (89.80%) and Armigeres subalbatus (9.20%) were the most abundant species. Diversity was high in Takhtbhai (0.29) followed by Katlang (0.28) and Mardan (0.25). Greater number of specimens were recorded in peridomestic sites (93.97%) as compared to domestic habitats (6.03%). Culex pipiens larval abundance had negative correlation with pH whereas it correlated positively with electric conductivity, salinity, and TDS (total dissolved sulphur). Mosquito abundance peaked in August and July while the lowest was in May. Their monthly abundance had positive correlation with rainfall (r= 0.5069), relative humidity (r= 0.4439) and mean minimum temperature (r= 0.2866). Number of mosquitoes was highest at low elevation < 347m asl (above sea level) in agriculture land and near to water bodies (streams).

    Conclusion: Culex pipiens being the most abundant species, was susceptible to high pH. Mosquitoes preferred habitats were at low elevation in agriculture land.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 31 | views: 52 | pages: 45–50

    Background: Leishmania major is the etiologic agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran, and glucantime in­jection is currently used for its treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-leishmanial effect of topical Plantago psyllium and white vinegar in L. major infected BALB/c mice.

    Methods: Thirty infected mice were divided into five groups as follows: Group‌ 1: treated with the combination of ovata powder and white vinegar, Group 2: treated with glucantime, Group 3: treated with white vinegar, Group 4: treated with the combination of ovata powder and water, and Group 5: without any treatment. All the groups were treated for 18 days. Lesion size was measured, and final smears were prepared for microscopic examination.

    Results: The findings indicated that the difference in the mean areas of the ulcers in all the groups before and after treatment was not significant, except for the second (glucantime) and third (vinegar) groups. Also, the results showed that in the first, second, third, and fourth group, 6 (60%), 4 (80%), 3 (60%), and 2 (40%) mice were healed, respective­ly. However, ulcers remained in all the five mice of the control group.

    Conclusion: The combination of ovata powder and white vinegar has been traditionally used to treat leishmanial lesions in Iran. It seems the most anti-leishmanial effect is related to vinegar and supported by Plantago. The route of treatment with this combination is very simple and painless in comparison with injection. Thus, further studies on this issue could help to design more effective and easy-to-use drugs.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 33 | views: 60 | pages: 51–60

    Background: Rodents and shrew living in the vicinity of human beings perform significant role to harbor different spe­cies of ectoparasites and thus act as the reservoir host for the spread of diseases to human and animals.

    Methods: This study was undertaken to determine the species composition of the medically important ectoparasites present in the scrub typhus affected places of Vellore District using wonder and Sherman traps for trapping of live Ro­dent/Shrew during September 2017 to August 2018.

    Results: Rodent/shrew hosts belonged to two Families, three sub families and five genera and five different species. These animals carried 23 species of ectoparasites including 17 trombiculid mites, two non-trombiculid mites, two ticks and two fleas. A total of 940 chigger mites were collected which belonged to three Tribes, six Genera, two Subgenera and 17 species. Adult mites collected belonged to two families, three genera and three species. Ticks collected were classified under one family, two genera and two species. Fleas fall under one family, one subfamily, one tribe, one ge­nus and two species.

    Conclusion: This is the first record of 14 species of chigger mites and three species of adult mites from Vellore District, Tamil Nadu. Surveillance of these keystone ectoparasites helped to identify the medically important disease vectors causing acari-borne zoonotic diseases.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 34 | views: 52 | pages: 61–71

    Background: Pediculosis, caused by Pediculus spp is an important public health problem in urban and rural areas around the world. Natural compounds such as plant essential oils (EOs) have been suggested as a potential alternative for insect pest control recently. The purpose of this study was to investigate the toxicity of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil against the head louse, Pediculus capitis under laboratory conditions.

    Methods: Fennel essential oil components were analyzed using GC-mass apparatus. Immersion and contact filter paper bioassays were used to evaluate fennel essential oil toxicity at the two-fold concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40% against nit and nymph/adult stages of the head louse.

    Results: Trans-anethole, α-Thujone, and limonene, which consisted of 76.08%, 10.37%, and 5.34% were the most com­ponents of fennel oil respectively. The LC50 values for the adult /nymphs were 11.5, 6.4, 3.9, 3.1 and 2.5% and LC99 values were 29.5, 15.2, 12.8, 10.8, and 7.4% at 10, 20, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after exposure respectively. The le­thal times (LT50) for adults/nymphs were 5.2, 8.1, 9.5, 20.5, and 45.8 minutes and LT99 were 138.6, 91.3, 23.8, 21.7, and 13.9 minutes in the concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40%, respectively. LC50 and LC99 values were 2.32% and 7.36% after 5 days for the eggs.

    Conclusion: Fennel essential oil at the concentration of 15% after 20min is suggested to develop as an appropriate for­mulation to evaluate in clinical trials.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 42 | views: 69 | pages: 72–83

    Background: Pediculosis is a common parasitic public health issue. Many socio-demographic and economic factors affect the pattern and prevalence of pediculosis. It is widely spread among pupils, particularly those in elementary schools. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Pediculus capitis infestation and its related risk factors in pri­mary school children in Sulaimani Governorate, Kurdistan Region of Iraq.

    Methods: This is a cross-sectional study, overall, 2064 primary school children (aged 5–14 years) during the period from October 2019 to February 2020 were randomly examined for the presence of any stage of Pediculosis capitis in both urban and suburban areas. The schools were selected by multistage sampling methods. A questionnaire was sent to the parents to get consent and fill in for every single pupil. The results were computed using the chi-square test and lo­gistic regression analysis.

    Results: The overall prevalence of head lice infestation was (9.16%). The study found a significant association of Pe­diculosis capitis infestation with gender, parents’ education level, mother’s employment, number of siblings, and previ­ous infestation. The older age of children (≥12 years old) and the higher-grade pupils (4th to 6th class) were more infest­ed.

    Conclusion: Head lice remain a health problem for school children. It needs collaboration of many sectors for decreas­ing and early detection and treatment in both urban and suburban areas since they have a close rate of infestation.

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