Resistance Mechanisms of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) to Temephos

  • Aboozar Soltani Department of Medical Entomology and vector control, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran AND Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health and National Institute of Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Hassan Vatandoost Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health and National Institute of Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • MohammadAli Oshaghi Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health and National Institute of Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Naseh Maleki-Ravasan Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health and National Institute of Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • AhmadAli Enayati School of Public Health and Health Research Centre, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
  • Fatemeh Asgarian School of Public Health and Health Research Centre, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
Keywords: Anopheles stephensi, temephos, mechanisms of resistance, Acetylcholinesterase gene, malaria

Abstract

Background: Anopheles stephensi is a sub-tropical species and has been considered as one of the most important vector of human malaria throughout the Middle East and South Asian region including the malarious areas of southern Iran. Current reports confirmed An. stephensi resistance to temephos in Oman and India. However, there is no comprehensive research on mechanisms of temephos resistance in An. stephensi in the literature. This study was designed in order to clarify the enzymatic and molecular mechanisms of temephos resistance in this species.Methods: Profile activities of α- and ß-esterases, mixed function oxidase (MFO), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), insensitive acetylcholinesterase, and para-nitrophenyl acetate (PNPA)-esterase enzymes were tested for An. stephensi strain with resistance ratio of 15.82 to temephos in comparison with susceptible strain.Results: Results showed that the mean activity of α-EST, GST and AChE enzymes were classified as altered indicating metabolic mechanisms have considerable role in resistance of An. stephensi to temephos. Molecular study using PCR-RFLP method to trace the G119S mutation in ACE-1 gene showed lack of the mutation responsible for organophosphate insecticide resistance in the temephos-selected strain of An. stephensi.Conclusion: This study showed that the altered enzymes but not targets site insensitivity of ACE-1 are responsible for temephos resistance in An. stephensi in south of Iran.

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Published
2015-10-11
How to Cite
1.
Soltani A, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi M, Maleki-Ravasan N, Enayati A, Asgarian F. Resistance Mechanisms of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) to Temephos. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 9(1):71-83.
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Original Article