Toxicity of Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum Extracts against Main Malaria Vector, Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Nigeria

  • Kayode David Ileke Department of Biology, School of Science, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
  • Jacobs Mobolade Adesina Department of Crop, Soil and Pest Management Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria, Insect Chemical Ecology Laboratory, Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development, Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India, Takyelpat, Manipur, India
Keywords: Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum gratissimum, Insecticide, Anopheles gambia, Clarias garipienus


Background: Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) transmit malaria parasite that causes malaria fever in humans, causing millions of deaths every year among infants in tropical countries. This study was undertaken to assess the tox­icity of Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum against pre-adult stages and adult malaria vector, An. gambiae and non-targeted aquatic organism, fingerlings of Clarias garipienus.Methods: Ethalonic extracts of O. basilicum and O. gratissimum were prepared according to the method described by WHO. The larvae and pupae of An. gambiae were exposed to plant extracts for 24h and their mortality was recorded. Toxicity of Ocimum species on non-targeted organism, fingerlings of C. garipienus was also investigated.Results: Ocimum basilicum showed remarkably potency against pre-adult stages and adults An. gambiae causing 100% mortality at 0.4% concentration within 24h of treatment. The LC50 and LC90 of O. basilicum were lower than O. gratti­simum in all stages of An. gambiae studied. Ocimum basilicum and O. gratissimum extracts significantly reduced the number of bites by the vector given a range of 72.25% to 81.75% protection. Ocimum species at the tested concentra­tions did not significantly reduce the number of fingerlings introduced.Conclusion: Ocimum species at the tested concentrations did not significantly reduce the numbers of non-targeted or­ganisms, fingerlings introduced. Therefore, O. basilicum and O. gratissimum could be used to reduce malaria preva­lence in the endemic areas of Nigeria as it poses no threat to aquatic organisms.


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How to Cite
Ileke KD, Adesina JM. Toxicity of Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum Extracts against Main Malaria Vector, Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Nigeria. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 13(4):362-377.
Original Article