Comparative Performance of Different Traps for Collection of Phlebotominae Sand Flies and Estimation of Biodiversity Indices in Three Endemic Leishmaniasis Foci in North Khorasan Province, Northeast of Iran

  • Kourosh Arzamani Vector-Borne Diseases Research Center, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran
  • Yavar Rassi Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Hassan Vatandoost Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Department of Environmental Chemical Pollutants and Pesticides, Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Amir Ahmad Akhavan Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Mohammad Reza Abai Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Mohammad Alavinia Vector-Borne Diseases Research Center, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran, Toronto Rehabilitation Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada
  • Kamran Akbarzadeh Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Mehdi Mohebali Department of Medical Parasitology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Sayena Rafizadeh Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran
  • Fateh Karimian Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Mehdi Badakhshan Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Azad Absavaran Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Keywords: Collection method, Biodiversity, Sandflie, Leishmania, Iran

Abstract

Background: Phlebotominae sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are the vectors of leishmaniasis. There are different methods for sand fly collection with different performance. The purpose of the current study was to compare the effect of different traps for collection of Phlebotominae sand flies in three endemic leishmaniasis foci in North Khorasan Prov­ince, northeast of Iran.Methods: Sand flies were collected using seven different traps from three villages, three times each twenty days during peak periods of seasonal activity in 2016.Results: A total of 7253 sand flies were collected. The specimens belonged to19 species. Phlebotomus sergenti was the most predominant species in the study area. Light trap baited with Carbon dioxide (CLT) and sticky paper trap (SPT) caught 22.6% and 22.3% of sand flies respectively. Animal baited trap (ABT) and white Shannon trap (WST) caught significantly fewer sand flies than the other traps. The sex ratio was different by phlebotominae sand fly species and collection methods. The sex ratio was highest in SPT and lowest in black Shannon trap (BST). Species diversity and species richness in SPT were more than other traps.Conclusion: Our findings confirm that CLT and SPT are the most efficient sand fly collection methods. CLT is higher attractive for females and Phlebotomus genus and is an ideal method for monitoring the population of Phlebotomus ge­nus during surveillance. SPT is an inexpensive, convenient and easy to be used to detect the presence of sand flies at low densities and provide a more realistic estimation of sand flies biodiversity.

References

1. Alvar J, Velez ID, Bern C, Herrero M, Desjeux P, Cano J, Jannin J, den Boer M; WHO Leishmaniasis Control Team (2012) Leishmaniasis worldwide and glob¬al estimates of its incidence. PloS One. 7(5): e35671.
2. Yaghoobi-Ershadi M (2012) Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Iran and their role on Leishmania trans¬mis-sion. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 6(1): 1–17.
3. Alavinia S, Arzamani K, Reihani M, Jafari J (2009) Some epidemiological aspects of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northern Khorasan Province, Iran. Iran J Arthropod Borne Dis. 3(2): 50–54.
4. Arzamani K (2012) Visceral leishmaniasis in North Khorasan Province, north east of Iran. Int J Infect Dis. 16: 340–346.
5. Mohebali M, Arzamani K, Zarei Z, Ak-houndi B, Hajjaran H, Raeghi S, Heidari Z, Mo¬tavalli-Haghi SM, Elikaee S, Mousaza¬deh-Mojarrad A, Kakoei Z (2016) Canine visceral leishmaniasis in wild canines (fox, jackal, and wolf) in northeastern Iran using parasitological, serological, and molecular methods. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 10(4): 538–545.
6. Rassi Y, Abai M, Oshaghi M, Javadian E, Sanei A, Rafidzadeh S, Arzamani K (2012) First detection of Leishmania in-fantum in Phlebotomus kandelakii using molecular methods in north-eastern Is-lam¬ic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J.
18(4): 387–392.
7. Rajabzadeh R, Arzamani K, Shoraka HR, Riyhani H (2015) Epidemiological sur-vey and geographical distribution of cu-ta¬neous Leishmaniasis in North Khora-san Province, 2006–2013. Int J Epidemiol Res. 2(4): 197–203.
8. Shimabukuro PHF, de Andrade AJ, Galati EAB (2017) Checklist of American sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotom-inae): genera, species, and their distri¬bu-tion. ZooKeys. (660): 67–106.
9. Alexander B (2000) Sampling methods for phlebotomine sandflies. Med Vet Ento-mol. 14(2): 109–122.
10. Kasap ÖE, Belen A, Kaynas S, Simsek FM, Biler L, Ata N, Alten B (2009) Ac-tivity patterns of sand fly (Diptera: Psy-chodidae) species and comparative per-formance of different traps in an en¬dem-ic cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in Cuku¬rova Plain, Southern Anatolia, Turkey. Acta Vet Brno. 78(2): 327–335.
11. Lahouiti K, Alami AEO, Hmamouch A, Bekhti K (2014) Phototropism of sand flies species (Diptera: Psychodidae) col-lected in a rural locality in Central Mo-rocco. J Parasitol Vector Biol. 6(5): 66–74.
12. Signorini M, Drigo M, Marcer F, di Re¬gal-bono AF, Gasparini G, Montarsi F, Pietrobelli M, Cassini R (2013) Com¬par-ative field study to evaluate the per-formance of three different traps for col-lecting sand flies in northeastern Italy. J Vector Ecol. 38(2): 374–378.
13. Hesam-Mohammadi M, Rassi Y, Abai MR, Akhavan AA, Karimi F, Rafizadeh S, Sanei-Dehkordi A, Sharafkhah M (2014) Efficacy of different sampling methods of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in endemic focus of cutaneous leishmani¬asis in Kashan district, Isfahan Province, Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 8(2): 156–162.
14. Galati E, Nunes V, Dorval M, Cristaldo G, Rocha H, Gonçalves-Andrade R, Naufel G (2001) Attractiveness of black Shannon trap for Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 96(5): 641–647.
15. Arzamani K, Vatandoost H, Rassi Y, Abai MR, Akhavan AA, Alavinia M, Akbar-za¬deh K, Mohebali M, Rafizadeh S (2017) Susceptibility status of wild population of Phlebotomus sergenti (Diptera: Psy¬cho¬didae) to different imagicides in a en¬demic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northeast of Iran. J Vector Borne Dis. 54(3): 282–286.
16. Rassi Y, Hanafi-Bojd A (2006) Phlebotom¬ine sand flies, vectors of Leishmaniases: Morphology, biology, ecology, and field and laboratory methods with pictorial key of Iranian sand flies. Tehran, Iran: No¬avaran-Elm Publication. 1–251.
17. Artemiev M (1973) Sandflies (Diptera, Psy¬chodidae, Phlebotominae) of Afghani¬stan: Malaria and Leishmania Institute. Min¬istry of Public Health. p. 87.
18. Schowalter TD (2016) Insect ecology: an ecosystem approach: Academic Press. p. 774.
19. Arzamani K, Vatandoost H, Rassi Y, Akha¬van AA, Abai MR, Alavinia M, Akbar¬zadeh K, Mohebali M, Rafizadeh S (2018) Richness and Diversity of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in North Khorasan Province, Northeast of Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 12(3): 232–239.
20. Alten B, Ozbel Y, Ergunay K, Kasap OE, Cull B, Antoniou M, Velo E, Prudhomme J, Molina R, Bañuls AL, Schaffner F, Hendrickx G, Van Bortel W, Medlock JM (2015) Sampling strategies for phlebotom¬ine sand flies (Diptera: Psy¬chodidae) in Europe. Bull Entomol Res. 105(6): 664–678.
Published
2019-08-03
How to Cite
1.
Arzamani K, Rassi Y, Vatandoost H, Akhavan AA, Abai MR, Alavinia M, Akbarzadeh K, Mohebali M, Rafizadeh S, Karimian F, Badakhshan M, Absavaran A. Comparative Performance of Different Traps for Collection of Phlebotominae Sand Flies and Estimation of Biodiversity Indices in Three Endemic Leishmaniasis Foci in North Khorasan Province, Northeast of Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 13(4):399-406.
Section
Original Article