Laboratory Evaluations of the Fractions Efficacy of Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae) Leaf Extract on Immature Stage Development of Malarial and Filarial Mosquito Vectors

  • Younoussa Lame Department of Biological Sciences, University of Ngaoundere, Cameroon.
  • EliasNchiwan Nukenine Department of Biological Sciences, University of Ngaoundere, Cameroon.
  • Danga Yinyang-Simon-Pierre Department of Biological Sciences, University of Ngaoundere, Cameroon.
  • Ajaegbu Eze-Elijah Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria.
  • Charles Okechukwu-Esimone Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria.
Keywords: Fractions, Pupicidal, Annona senegalensis, Anopheles gambiae, Culex quinquefasciatus

Abstract

Background: Within the framework to control mosquitoes, ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Annona senegalensis leaf extract and its 4 fractions against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were evaluated in the laboratory conditions.Methods: Ovicidal test was performed by submitting at least 100 eggs of mosquitoes to 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm concentrations, while larvicidal and pupicidal effects were assessed by submitting 25 larvae or pupae to the concentrations of 2500, 1250, 625 and 312.5 ppm of plant extract or fractions of A. senegalensis.Results: The eggs of An. gambiae were most affected by N-hexane (0.00% hatchability) and chloroform (03.67% hatchability) fractions compared to Cx. quinquefasciatus where at least 25 % hatchability were recorded at 2000 ppm. For larvicidal test, N-hexane (LC50= 298.8 ppm) and chloroform (LC50= 418.3 ppm) fractions were more effective than other fractions on An. gambiae larvae while, a moderate effectiveness was also observed with Nhexane (LC50= 2087.6 ppm), chloroform (LC50= 9010.1 ppm) fractions on Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The highest mortality percent of the pupae were also recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions on An. gambiae at 2500 ppm. As for Cx. quinquefasciatus only 50 % and 36 % mortality were recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions respectively.Conclusion: The extract of A. senegalensis was toxic on immature stage of mosquito species tested. By splitting methanolic crude extract, only N-hexane and chloroform fractions were revealed to possess a mosquitocidal effects and could be considered and utilized for future immature mosquito vectors control.

References

Abbott WS (1925) A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J Econ Entomol. 18: 265–267.

Akoègninou A, Van Der Burg WJ, Van Der Maesen LJG (2006) Flore Analytique du Bénin, éd. Backhuys Plublishers.

Anupam G, Nandita C, Goutam C (2012) Plant extracts as potential mosquito larvicide. Indian J Med Res. 135: 581–598.

Appadurai DR, Arokia VK, Michael GP, Savarimuthu I (2013) Larvicidal, Ovicidal, and repellent activities of Ma- rine Sponge Cliona celata (Grant) ex- tracts against Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae). ISRN Entomol, pp. 1–9.

Ashfaq M, Ashfaq U (2012) Evaluation of mosquitocidal activity of water extract of Moringa oleifera seeds against Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Pakistan. Pak Entomol. 34(1): 21–26.

Bagavan A, Kamaraj C, Elango G, Zahir, AA, Rahuman AA (2009) Adulticidal and larvicidal efficacy of some me- dicinal plant extracts against tick, fluke and mosquitoes. Vet Parasitol. 166(3–4): 286–292.

Bobadilla-Alvarez M, Zavaleta-Espejo G, Gil-Franco F, Pollack-Velásquez L, Sisniegas-Gonzáles M (2002) Efecto bioinsecticida del extracto etanólico de las semillas de Annona cherimolia Miller (chirimoya) y A. muricata Lin- naeus (guanábana) sobre larvas del IV estadio de Anopheles sp. Rev Per Biol.9: 64–73.

Borah R, Kalita MC, Kar A, Talukdar AK (2010) Larvicidal efficacy of Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam against two mos- quito vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Afr J Biotechnol. 9 (16): 2527–2530.

Campbell FL, Sullivan WW, Smith LN (1933) The relative toxicity of nico- tine, anabasine, methyl anabasine and lupinine for Culicinae mosquitoes. J Econ Entomol. 26: 500–509.

Ciccia G, Coussio J, Mongelli E (2000) In- secticidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae of some medicinal South Amer- ican plants. J Ethnopharm. 72(1–2):185–189.

Das NG, Goswami D, Rabha B (2007) Pre- liminary evaluation of mosquito larvi- cidal effcacy of plant extracts. J Vector Borne Dis. 44: 145–148.

De Lima MGA, Maia ICC, De Sousa BD, De Morais SM, Freitas SM (2006) Ef- fects of stalk and leaf extracts from Euphorbiaceae species on Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae) larvae. Rev Inst Med Trop S Paulo. 48: 211–214.

Dhivya R and Manimegalai K (2013) Comparitive ovicidal potential of the flower and leaf extracts of Calotropis gigantea against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Int J Recent Sci Res. 4(6): 735–737.

Dua VK, Pandey AC, Dash AP (2010) Adulticidal activity of essential oil of Lantana camara leaves against mosqui- toes. Indian J Med Res. 131: 434–439.

Farjana N, Rowshanul HM, Zahangir AS, Rezaul KM (2011) Tagetes erecta Linn. and its mosquitocidal potency against Culex quinquefasciatus. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed: 186–188.

Finney DJ (1979) Probit analysis. Cam- bridge University Press, London.Foko GA, Tamesse JL, Fekam Boyom F (2011) Adulticidal effects of essential oils extracts from Capsicum annuum (Solanaceae), Piper nigrum (Piperaceae) and Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae)on Anopheles gambiae (Diptera-Culi- cidea), vector of malaria. J Entomol.8(2): 152–163.

Fred-Jaiyesimi AA, Anthony O (2011) Larvicidal activities of the extract and fractions of Paullinia pinnata Linn leaf. Pharmaco Communi. 1(2): 37–40.

Govindarajan M (2009) Bioefficacy of Cas- sia fistula Linn. (Leguminosae) leaf extract against chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Eur Rev Med Pharm Sci. 13: 99–103

Govindarajan M, Jebanesan A, Pushpanathan T, Samidurai K (2008) Studies on effect of Acalypha indica L.(Euphorbiaceae) leaf extracts on the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res. 103: 691–695.

Govindarajan M, Mathivanan T, Elumalai K, Krishnappa K, Anandan A (2011) Mosquito larvicidal, ovicidal, and re- pellent properties of botanical extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res.109(2): 353–367.

Govindarajan M, Rajeswary M, Sivakumar R(2012) Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal activity of Delonix elata (L.) Gamble against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Asian Pac J Trop Dis: 571–573.

Gueye S, Diop MT, Seck D, Sembene M (2011) Biochemical fractions activity of Annona senegalensis Pers. Extract leaves to protect groundnut against the seed-beetle Caryedon serratus Ol. (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidea, Bruchinae). Int J Plant Anim Environ Sci. 1(2):122–130.

Harborne J (1973) Phytochemical Methods: A guide to modern technique of plant analysis. Chapman and Hall, Thomp- son Science, London.Isman MB (2006) Botanical insecticides, deter-

rents, and repellents in modern agricul- ture and increasingly regulated world. Annu Rev Entomol. 51: 45–66.

Ivoke N, Okafor FC, Owoicho LO (2009) Evaluation of ovicidal and larvicidal effects of leaf extracts of Hyptis suaveolens (L) poit (Lamiaceae) against Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Ano- phelidae) complex. Anim Res Int. 6(3):1072–1076.

Jolad SD, Hoffmann KH, Schram KH, Cole JR, Bates RB, Tempesta MS (1984) A new diterpene from Cupressus goveniana var. abramasiana: 5 beta-hydroxy-6- oxasugiol (Cupresol). J Nat Prod. 47:983–987.

Joshep CC, Ndoils MM, Malima RC, Nkuniya NHM (2004) Larvicidal and mosquitocidal extracts, a coumrin, isofavonoids and petrocarpans from Neorautanenia mitis. Trans Rev Soc Trop Med Hyg. 98: 451–.455.

Kamaraj C, Bagavan A, Elango G, Abduz- Zahir A, Rajakumar G, Marimuthu S, Santhoshkumar T, Abdul-Rahuman A (2011) Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Indian J Med Res. 134: 101–106.

Kamaraj C, Bagavan A, Rahuman AA, Zahir AA, Elango G, Pandiyan G (2009) Larvicidal potential of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus Grassiand Culextritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res.104(5): 1163–1171.

Kaushik R, Saini P (2008). Larvicidal activity of leaf extract of Millingtonia hortensis (Family: Bignoniaceae) against Anoph- eles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. J Vector Borne Dis.45: 66–69.

Kumar G, Karthik L, Bhaskara-Rao1 KV, Kirthi AV, Rahuman AA (2012) Larvicidal, repellent and ovicidal ac- tivity of Calotropis gigantea against Culex gelidus, Culex itaeniorhynchus

(Diptera: Culicidae). J Agric Entomol.8(3): 869–880

Mittal PK, Subbarao SK (2003) Prospects of using herbal products in the control of mosquito vectors. ICMR Bull. 33: 1–10.

Moore SJ, Lenglet AD (2004) An overview of plants used as insect repellents. In: Wilcox M, Bodeker G, Rasoanavo P (Eds): Traditional medicinal plants and malaria, Vol. 4. CRC Press’ Boca Ra- ton, pp. 343–363.

Murugan K, Murugan P, Noortheen A (2007) Larvicidal and repellent potential of Albizzia amara Boivin and Ocimum basilicum Linn. against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Insecta: Diptera: Culi- cidae). Biores Tech. 98: 198–201.

Ngamo TSL, Ngassoum MB, Mapongmestsem PM, Noudjou WF (2007) Use of essential oils of plants as protectant of grains during storage. Agri J. 2(2):204–209.

Ogbadoyi EO, Abdulganiy AO, Adama TZ, Okogun JI (2007). In vivo trypanocidal activity of Annona senegalensis Pers. leaf extract against Trypanosoma brucei brucei. J Ethnopharm. 112: 85–89.

Okigbo RN, Okeke JJ, Madu NC (2010) Larvicidal effects of Azadirachta indica, Ocimum gratissimum and Hyptis suaveolens against mosquito larvae. J Agri Tech. 6(4): 703–719.

Prabhu K, Murugan A (2011) Larvicidal and repellent potential of Moringa oleifera against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae). Asian Pac J Trop Biomed:

–129.

Promsiri S, Naksathi A, Kruatrachue M, Thavara U (2006) Evaluations of larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts to Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and other effects on a non- target fish. Am J Mosq Control Assoc.

: 292–295.

Rajkumar S, Jebanesan A (2004) Ovicidal activity of Moschosma polystachyum Linn. (Lamiaceae) leaf extract against filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Trop Biomed. 21: 47–50.

Remia KM, Logaswamy S (2010) Larvicidal efficacy of leaf extract of two botani- cals against the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Indian J Nat Prod Res. 1(2): 208–212.

Sahpaz S, Laurens A, Hocquemiller R, Cavé A, Cortés D (1994) Senegalène, une nouvelle acétogénine oléfinique mono- tetrahydrofuranique des graines d’Annona senegalensis. Can J Chem.72: 1533–1536.

Samidurai K, Jebanesan A, Saravanakumar A, Govindarajan M, Pushpanathan T (2009) Larvicidal, ovicidal and repel- lent activities of Pemphis acidula Forst. (Lythraceae) against filarial and dengue vector mosquitoes. Acad J Entomol. 2(2): 62–66.

Saxena RC, Harshan V, Saxena A, Sukumaran P, Sharma MC, Kumar ML (1993) Larvicidal and chemosterilant activity of Annona squamosa alkaloids against Anopheles stephensi. J Am Mosq Con- trol Assoc. 9: 84–87.

Shalaby AA, Allam KA, Mostafa AA, Fahmy SM (1998) Insecticidal proper- ties of citrus oils against Culex pipiens and Musca domesticus. J Egyp Sci Parasitol. 28: 595–606.

Sriwattanarungsee S, Sukontason KL, Olson JK, Chailapakul O, Sukontason K (2008) Efficacy of neem extract against the blowfly and housefly. Parasitol Res.103: 535–544.

Suleiman MM, Dzenda T, Sani CA (2008) Antidiarrhoeal activity of the methanol stem-bark extract of Annona senegalensis Pers. (Annonaceae). J Ethnopharm. 116:125–130.

Tare V, Deshpande S, Sharma RN (2004) Susceptibility of two different strains of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to plant oils. J Econ Entomol. 97:1734–1736.

Tennyson S, Ravindran KJ, Arivoli S (2012) Screening of twenty five plant extracts for larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culi- cidae). Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. S1130–1134.

Trease GE, Evans MC (1989) Text-book of Pharmacognosy, 13th Ed, Bailere Tindall. WHO (1996) Report of the World Health Organization informal consultation on the evaluation and testing of insecti- cides. CTD/ WHOPES/IC/96, World Health Organization, Geneva, Swit- zerland.

Published
2015-10-11
How to Cite
1.
Lame Y, Nukenine E, Yinyang-Simon-Pierre D, Eze-Elijah A, Okechukwu-Esimone C. Laboratory Evaluations of the Fractions Efficacy of Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae) Leaf Extract on Immature Stage Development of Malarial and Filarial Mosquito Vectors. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 9(2):226-237.
Section
Original Article