Determination of Prevalence and Risk Factors of Infection with Babesia ovis in Small Ruminants from West Azerbaijan Province, Iran by Polymerase Chain Reaction
AbstractBackground: Small ruminants’ babesiosis caused by Babesia ovis, is transmitted during blood feeding by infected ticks and is the most economically important tick-borne disease in tropical and subtropical areas. This study was carried out to to estimate the infection rate of B. ovis in sheep and goats by PCR. We have analysed risk factors that might influence infection of sheep and goats with B. ovis.Methods: A total 402 blood samples were examined microscopically for the presence of Babesia infection. All samples were tested by PCR. During sampling, whole body of each animal and farm dogs was examined for the presence of ticks.Results: Forty-two animals (10.4%) were positive for Babesia spp. upon microscopic examination, whereas 67 animals (16.7%) yielded the specific DNA for B. ovis of which 52 animals were sheep and 15 animals were goats.Twenty-nine farms (72.5%) were found positive for B. ovis. The percentage of positive animals in each location varied from 13 % to 20 %. The relative risk of the presence of ticks in sheep and goats (P< 0.01) and farm dogs (P< 0.01) for PCRpositive results forB. ovis in sheep and goats was found 3.8 and 2.9, respectively. A total of 747 ticks identified as Rhipicephalus bursa, R. sanguineus and R. turanicus on the basis of morphological features.Conclusion: Other animal species besides dogs may also be risk factors for babesiosis in sheep and goats. Also, R. bursa may play an important role as a vector of the parasite in Iran.
Aktas M, Altay K, Dumanli N (2005) De- velopment of a polymerase chain reac- tion method for diagnosis of Babesia ovis infection in sheep and goats. Vet Parasitol. 133: 277–281.
Aktas M, Altay K, Dumanli N (2007) De- termination of prevalence and risk fac- tors for infection with Babesia ovis in small ruminants from Turkey by pol- ymerase chain reaction. Parasitol Res.100: 797–802.
Altay K, Aktas M, Dumanli N (2008) De- tection of Babesia ovis by PCR in Rhipicephalus bursa collected from naturally infested sheep and goats. Res Vet Sci. 85: 116–119.
Bouattour A, Darghouth M A, Daoud A (1999) Distribution and ecology of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting live- stock in Tunisia: an overview of eighth years field collections. Parassitologia.41(1): 5–10.
Calder JA, Reddy GR, Chieves L, Courtney CH, Littell R, Livengood JR, Norval RA, Smith C, Dame JB (1996) Mon- itoring Babesia bovis infections in cattle by using PCR-based tests. J Clin Microbiol. 34: 2748–2755.
Criado-Fornelio A, Martinez-Marcos A, Buling-Sarana A, Barba-Carretero JC (2003) Molecular studies on Babesia, Theileria and Hepatozoon in southern Europe. Part I. Epizootiological as- pects. Vet Parasitol. 113: 189–201.
Estrada-Pena A, Bouattaur A, Camicas JL, Walker AR (2004) Ticks of Domestic Animals in the Mediterranean Region. University of Zaragoza, Spain.
Hashemi-Fesharki R (1997) Tick-borne dis- eases of sheep and goats and their related vectors in Iran. Parassitologia.39: 115–117.
Jefferies R, Ryan UM, Muhlnickel CJ, Irwin PJ (2003) Two species of canine Babesia in Australia: detection and characterization by PCR. J Parasitol.89: 409–412.
Papadopoulos B, Brossard M, Perie NM (1996) Piroplasms of domestic animals in the Macedonia region of Greece. 3. Piroplasms of small ruminants. Vet Parasitol. 63: 67–74.
Passos LM, Bell-Sakyi L, Brown CG (1998) Immunochemical characterization of in vitro culture-derived antigens of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina. Vet Parasitol. 76: 239–249.
Rahbari S, Nabian S, Khaki Z, Alidadi N, Ashrafihelan J (2008) Clinical, haema- tologic and pathologic aspects of ex- perimental ovine babesiosis in Iran. Iran J Vet Res. 9: 59–64.
Razmi GR, Naghibi A, Aslani MR, Dastjerdi K, Hossieni H (2003) An epidemio- logical study on Babesia infection in small ruminants in Mashhad suburb, Khorasan Province, Iran. Small Rumi- nant Res. 50: 39–44.
Schetters TP, Kleuskens JA, Van De Crommert J, De Leeuw PW, Finizio AL,Gorenflot A (2009) Systemic in- flammatory responses in dogs exper- imentally infected with Babesia canis, a haematological study. Vet Parasitol.
Sevinc F, Turgut K, Sevinc M, Ekici OD, Coskun A, Koc Y, Erol M, Ica A (2007) Therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate on experimental Babesia ovis infection of lambs. Vet Parasitol. 149: 65–71.
Shayan P, Hooshmand E, Nabian S, Rahbari S (2008) Biometrical and genetical characterization of large Babesia ovis in Iran. Parasitol Res. 103: 217–221.
Soulsby E (1982) Helminths, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Ani- mals. Vol 3. Bailliere Tindall, London.
Tavassoli M, Haji-Ghahramani Sh (2004) Identification of Babesia spp and Tick infestation in sheep in Ardabil. J Fac Vet Med Tehran. 59: 9–12.
Tavassoli M, Rahbari S (1998) Seroepi- demioligical survey of Babesia ovis in sheep of different geographical regions of Iran. J Fac Vet Med Tehran. 53: 55–59.
Theodoropoulos G, Gazouli M, Ikonomopoulos JA, Kantzoura V, Kominakis A (2006) Determination of prevalence and risk factors of infection with Babesia in small ruminants from Greece by pol- ymerase chain reaction amplification. Vet Parasitol. 135: 99–104.
Uilenberg G (2006) Babesia-a historical overview. Vet Parasitol. 138: 3–10.
Walker AR, Bouattour A, Camicas JL, Estrada-Pena A, Horak IG, Lati A, Pefram RG , Preston PM (2003) Ticks of domestic animals in Africa, a guide to identification of species. Bioscience Reports, UK.
Yeruham I, Hadani A,Galker F (1996) Effect of passage of Babesia ovis in the gerbil (Acomys cahirinus) on the course of infection in splenectomized lambs. Vet Parasitol. 65: 157–161.
Yeruham I, Hadani A, Galker F, Rosen S (1995) A study of an enzootic focus of sheep babesiosis (Babesia ovis, Babes,1892). Vet Parasitol. 60: 349–354.