Prevalence and epizootical aspects of varroasis in golestan province, northern iran.
AbstractBackground: The Varroa destructor mite is considered as a major pest of honey bees Apis mellifera. The rapid spread of Varroa mites among bee colonies may be due to several factors, including drifting of infested bees, movement of bee swarms, and robbing of weakened colonies. Disease spread and predisposing the infested bees to other diseases lead to high economic losses in beekeeping industries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and evaluate some managing factors in Golestan Province in Iran in 2008.Methods: According to the records of Agricultural Research Center, 80 infested beekeeping centers identified and a questionnaire consists of managing factors for each center has been designed. All data were recorded and analyzed by SPSS software to calculate χ2 test.Results: Among 80 apiculture centers, 72 centers (92%) were infested to Varroa and hive density of 90.6% of the centers was 31–60 hives in one center (P= 0.324). All of the apiculture centers had more than 6 km distance to nearest beekeeping center (P= 0.687). Amongst bee keepers 15(93.8%) had low literacy level (P= 0.479) and 26(89.7%)had 5–10 years experience in beekeeping (P= 0.953).Conclusion: We can conclude that because of the high prevalence of the disease, the usual methods of prevention are not effective. This high prevalence emphasizes that we are very far from a solution for Varroa infestation and extra researches on mite biology, tolerance breeding, and Varroa treatment is immediately required.
Allen MF, Ball BV, White RF, Antoniw JF (1986) The detection of acute paralysis virus in Varroa jacobsoni by the use of a simple indirect ELISA. J Apicult Res. 25: 100–105.
Anderson DL, Trueman JWH (2000) Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae) is more than one species. Exp Appl Acarol. 24:165–189.
Bailey L, Ball BV (1991) Honey Bee Pa- thology. Academic Press, London.Boecking O, Genersch E (2008) Varroosis – the ongoing crisis in bee keeping. J Consum Protect Food Safety. 3(2):221–228.
Boot WJ, Calis NM, Beetsma J (1992) Dif- ferential periods of varroa mite inva- sion into worker and drone brood cells of honey bees. Exp Appl Acarol. 6:295–301.
Bowen-Walker PL, Martin SJ, Gunn A (1999) The transmission of deformed wing virus between honeybees (Apis mellifera) by the ectoparasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni Oud. J Invertebr Pathol. 73: 101–106.
Calderone NW (2000) Effective fall treatment of Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae) in colonies of the honey bee (Hyme- noptera: Apidae) with formic acid in a northern climate. J Econ Entomol. 93:1065–1075.
Calderone NW (2005) Evaluation of drone brood removal for the management of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in colonies of the honey bee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the northeastern USA. J Econ Entomol.98: 645–650.
Chen YP, Siede R (2007) Honey bee viruses.Adv. Virus Res. 70: 33–80.
Currie RW, Gatien P (2006) Timing acaricide treatments to prevent Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) from causing eco- nomic damage to honey bee colonies. Can Entomol. 138: 238–252.
De Guzman LI, Rinderer TE (1999) Identifi- cation and comparison of Varroa spe- cies infesting honey bees. Apidologie.30: 85–95.
de Jong D (1997) Mites: varroa and other parasites of brood. In: Morse RM,Flottum PK (Eds.), Honey Bees Pests, Predators, and Diseases, 3rd ed. The A. I Root Company, Medina, OH, pp.281–327.
De la Rua P, Jaffe R, Dall´Olio R, Muñoz I, Serrano J (2009) Biodiversity, conser- vation and current threats to European honeybees. Apidologie. 40: 263–284.
Eguaras M, Marcangeli J, Oppedisano M, Fernández N (1994) Seasonal changes in Varroa jacobsoni reproduction in temperate climates of Argentina. Bee Sci. 3: 120–123.
Fries I, Camazine S, Sneyd J (1994) Population dynamics of Varroa jacobsoni: a model and a review. Bee World. 75: 5–28.
Fries I (1997) Organic control of Varroa. In: Munn P, Jones R (Eds) Varroa! Fight the mite. IBRA, Cardiff.
Garcia-Fernandez P, Rodriguez RB, Oran- tesbermejo FJ (1995) Influence of cli- mate on the evolution of the popu- lation-dynamics of the Varroa mite on honeybees in the south of Spain. Apidologie. 26(5): 371–380.
Imdorf A, Bogdanov S, Ibáñez Ochoa R, Calderone N (1999) Use of essential oils for the control of Varroa Jacobsoni Oud. in honey bee colonies. Apidologie.30: 209–228.
Imdorf A, Charriere JD, Maquelin C, Kit- chenmann V, Bachofen B (1995) Al- ternative varroa control. Federal Dairy Research Institute, Apiclutural Depart- ment, Liebefeld.
Isman MB (2000) Plant essential oils for pest and disease management. Crop Prot. 19: 603–608.
Kanbar G, Engels W (2003) Ultrastructure and bacterial infection of wounds in honey bee (Apis mellifera) pupae punc- tured by Varroa mites. Parasitol Res.90: 349–354.
Kraus B, Velthuis HHW (1997) High hu- midity in the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) brood nest limits reproduction of the parasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni Oud. Naturwissenschaften. 84: 217–218. Milani N (1999) The resistance of Varroa jacobsoni Oud. to acaricides. Apidologie.30: 229–234.
Moretto G, Gonçalves LS, De Jong D (1997) Relationship between food availability and the reproductive ability of the mite Varroa jacobsoni in Africanized bee colonies. Am Bee J. 137: 67–69.
Rath W (1999) Co-adaptation of Apis cerana Fabr. and Varroa jacobsoni Oud. Api- dologie. 1999. 30: 97–110.
Ruttner F, Ritter W (1980) Das Eindringen von Varroa jacobsoni nach Europa im Rückblick. Allg Deut Imkerz. 14: 130–134.
Sammataro D, Gerson U, Needham G (2000) Parsitic mites of honey bees: Life His- tory, Implications, and Impact. Annu Rev Entomol. 45:519–548
Thomas HU (1997) Practical aspects of al- ternative Varroa control methods. In: Munn P, Jones R (eds) Varroa! fight the mite. IBRA, Cardiff, pp. 22–30.
Wallner K (1999) Varroacides and their res- idues in bee products. Apidologie. 30:235–248.
Yue C, Genersch E (2005) RT-PCR analysis of deformed wing virus in honeybees (Apis mellifera) and mites (Varroa de- structor). J Gen Virol. 86: 3419–3424.