Malaria situation in an endemic area, southeastern iran.
AbstractBackground: Malaria is an endemic infectious disease in southeastern parts of Iran. Despite years of efforts and intervention programs against malaria, transmission still occurs in Jask County.Methods: The epidemiological perspective of malaria in Jask County was conducted by gathering data from Jask County health center, during 2006–2010. A knowledge, attitude and practice study was also carried out. Data analy- sis was conducted using SPSS ver. 11.5.Results: A total of 2875 malaria cases were recorded, with highest and lowest numbers in 2007 and 2010, respec- tively. The number of cases had a decreasing trend from 1022 cases in 2006 to 114 cases in 2010. The main causative parasitic agent was Plasmodium vivax. Blood examination rate and slide positive rate were also decreased from 39.5% and 4.3% in 2006 to 15.6% and 1.4% in 2010, respectively. Most of people interviewed in the KAP study had a good knowledge about malaria transmission and symptoms but their use of the bed net for prevention was low (35%).Conclusion: Malaria incidence had significant reduction during the study years. The main reason for this may be due to changing environmental condition for Anopheline breeding and survival because of drought. Another reason may be integration of vector management by using long lasting insecticide treated bed nets, active case detection and treatment by implementation of mobile teams and increasing in financial sources of malaria control program. Knowledge, attitude and practice of people were good in malaria control and prevention, but needs to do more activ- ities for health education and awareness.
Hanafi-Bojd AA, Vatandoost H, Philip E, Stepanova E, Abdi AI, Safari R, Moh seni Gh, Bruhi MI, Peter A, Abdulrazag Sh, Mangal G (2010) Malaria situation analysis and stratification in Bandar Ab- bas County, Southern Iran, 2004–2008. Iran J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 4(1): 31–41.
Hanafi-Bojd AA, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Eshraghian MR, Haghdoost AA, Abedi F, Zamani G, Sedaghat MM, Rashidian A, Madani AH, Raeisi A (2011a) Kno- wledge, attitudes and practices regarding malaria control in an endemic area of Southeastern Iran. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Publ Health. 42(3): 491–501.
Hanafi-Bojd AA, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Haghdoost AA, Shahi M, Sedaghat MM, Abedi F, Yeryan M, Pakari A (2012a) Entomological and epidemiological at- tributes for malaria transmission and implementation of vector control in sou- thern Iran. Acta Trop. 121 : 85–92.
Hanafi-Bojd AA, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Charrahy Z, Haghdoost AA, Sedaghat MM, Abedi F, Soltani M, Raeisi A (2012b) Larval habitats and biodiversi- ty of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malarious area of south- ern Iran. J Vector Borne Dis. 49: 91–100.
Koram KA (1989) Socioeconomic determi- nants are not major risk factors for severe malaria in Gambian children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 89: 151–154.
Masoumi AH, Motabar M, Zamani Gh, Na- serinejad D, Vatandoost H (2003) A case-control study of determinative fac- tors on malaria morbidity in Minab, Jask and Roodan counties, in Hormoz- gan Province, southern Iran, 2001. Iran J Public Health. 32: 14–18.
McKelvie WR, Haghdoost AA, Raeisi A (2012) Defining and detecting malaria epidemics in south-east Iran. Malaria J. 11: 81.
Mesdaghinia AR, Vatandoost H, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Majdzadeh R, Raeisi A (2013) Con- ducting international diploma course on malaria program planning and manage- ment (1996–2012). J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 7(2): 100–112.
Nateghpour M, Ayazian Mavi S, Keshavarz H, Rezaei S, Abedi F, Edrissian GH, Raeisi A (2010a) Molecular monitoring of Plasmodium vivax infection after rad- ical treatment in Southeastern Iran. Iran J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 4(1): 24–30.
Nateghpour M, Makiani MJ, Mohseni G, Sa- fari R, Hajjaran H, Ataei S (2010b) First case of imported Plasmodium ovale from Iran. Iran J Med Sci. 35(3): 264–266.
Nateghpour M, Akbarzadeh K, Farivar L, Amiri A (2011) Detection of asympto- matic malaria infection among the Af- ghani immigrant population in Iranshahr district of southeastern Iran. Bull Soc Path Exot. 104(4): 321–323.
Raeisi A, Ringwald P, Safa O, Shahbazi A, Ranjbar M, Keshavarz H, Nateghpour M, Faraji L (2006) Monitoring of the therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine for the treatment of uncomplicated, Plasmo- dium falciparum malaria in Iran. Annals Trop Med Parasitol. 100(1): 11–16.
Rakhshani F, Moghadam AR, Alami R (2001) Know-ledge, attitude and practice of Baluchestan women about Malaria. Tabib-e-Shargh. J Zahedan Univ Med Sci. 1: 15–29.
Rakhshani F, Ansari Moghadam AR, Alemi R, Moradi A (2003) Knowledge, percep- tions and prevention of malaria among women in Sistan va Baluchestan, Is- lamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 9(3): 248–256.
Salehi M, Amirmajdi MM, Mashhadi IE, Hakemi Y, Mashhadi AE, Mirinezhad A (2010) Analysis of malaria epidemic features in Sistan and Baluchistan Prov- ince, Southeast of Iran, 2005–2008. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 12(3): 247–253.
Turki H, Zoghi S, Mehrizi AA, Zakeri S, Raeisi A, Khazan H, Haghdoost AA (2012) Absence of asymptomatic ma- laria infection in endemic area of Ba- shagard district, Hormozgan Province, Iran. Iran J Parasitol. 7(1): 36–44.
Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Abaie MR, Shahi M, Yaghoobi F, Baghaii M, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Zamani G, Townson H (2006) Bi- onomics of Anopheles stephensi Liston in the malarious area of Hormozgan Province, southern Iran, 2002. Acta Trop. 97: 196–203.
Vatandoost H, Akbarzadeh K, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Mashayekhi M, Saffari M, Malik F, Kenyi L, Abakar JB, Busaq A, Es- mailpour M, Hassen A, Oshaghi MA (2010) Malaria stratification in a ma- larious area, a field exercise. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 3(10): 807–811.
Vatandoost H, Rashidian A, Jafari M, Raeisi A, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Yousofzai AW, Daryanavard A, Mojahedi AR, Pakari A (2011) Demonstration of malaria situa- tion analysis, stratification and planning in Minab District, southern Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 4: 67–71.
WHO (2011a) The World Malaria Report.Geneva.WHO (2011b) Planning and managing malaria control programmes, guide for partici- pants. Global Malaria Programme. Ge- neva.
Zoghi S, Mehrizi AA, Raeisi A, Haghdoost AA, Turki H, Safari R, Ahmadi Kahanali A, Zakeri S (2012) Survey for asymp- tomatic malaria cases in low transmis- sion settings of Iran under elimination programme. Malaria J. 126.
Youssefi MR, Rahimi MT (2011) Prevalence of malaria infection in Sarbaz, Sistan and Bluchistan Province. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 1(6): 491–492.