Evaluation of Repellency Effect of Essential Oils of Satureja khuzestanica (Carvacrol), Myrtus communis (Myrtle), Lavendula officinalis and Salvia sclarea using Standard WHO Repellency Tests.

  • Mohammad Hassan Kayedi Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center and Department of Parasitology, School of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.
  • Ali Akbar Haghdoost Research Center for Modeling in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
  • Ali Salehnia Khorraman Herbal Medicines Pharmaceutical Company, Khorramabad, Iran.
  • Kiumars Khamisabadi National Health Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Keywords: Anopheles stephensi, Malaria, essential oil, plants, repellents

Abstract

Background: Using special lotions and repellent sprays on skin is one of the effective methods to prevent Arthropods biting which was verified in this study.Methods: Essential oils of four plants (Satureja khuzestanica, Salvia sclarea, Lavendula officinalis and Myrtus communis) were separately extracted by Clevenger used hydro distillation method. Then separated solutions with 10%, 20% and 40% concentrations of essential oils of plants in 99.6 % ethanol were prepared. WHO guidelines for efficacy testing of mosquito repellents for human skin were used on different concentrations of essential oils of plants, traditional repellents (DEET, 50% and 33%) as positive control, and ethanol 99.6% and naked hands as nega- tive controls.Results: In negative control groups, the number of bits were comparable (P= 0.42) and had decreasing time trends (naked hands P= 0.011, ethanol P< 0.001). In all time points, minimum bites were observed in traditional repellents and it was significantly less than the other groups (P< 0.001). The time trend in the number of bites in the other groups was positive and showed minimum number of bites in time zero in all groups. We also found that the con- centration of repellents had association with the number of bites. The maximum and minimum numbers of bites were observed with 10% and 40% concentrations respectively in all groups.Conclusion: Essential oils of Salvia sclarea, Lavendula officinalis and Myrtus communis have repellency effect,even with 10% concentration of essential oils.

References

Amer A, Mehlhorn H (2006) Larvicidal effects of various essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex larvae (Diptera, Culicidae). Parasitol Res. 99(4): 466–472.

Ansari MA, Mittal PK, Razdan RK, Sreehari U (2005) Larvicidal and mosquito repellent activities of Pine (Pinus longifolia, Fam- ily: Pinaceae) oil. J Vect Borne Dis. 42:95–99.

Antwi FB, Shama LM, Peterson RKD (2008) Risk assessments for the insect repel- lents DEET and picaridin. Regul Toxicol Pharm. 51: 31–36.

Appendino G, Maxia L, Bettoni P, Locatelli M, Valdivia C, Ballero M, Stavri M, Gibbons S, Sterner O (2006) Antibac- terial galloylated alkylphloroglucinol glucosides from myrtle (Myrtus communis). J Nat Prod. 69(2): 251–254.

Ben Arfa A, Combes S, Preziosi-Belloy L, Gontard N, Chalier P (2006) Antimi- crobial activity of carvacrol related to its schemical structure. Letp Appl Mic- robiol. 43(2): 149–154.

Burt SA, Fledderman MJ, Haagsman HP, Van Knapen F, Veldhuizen EJ (2007) Inhibition of Salmonella enterica sero- type Enteritidis on agar and raw chick- en by carvacrol vapour. Int J Food Microbiol. 119(3): 346–350.

Cetin H, Erler F, Yanikoglu AA (2007) com- parative evaluation of Origanum onites essential oil and its four major com- ponents as larvicides against the pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni Tams. Pest Manag Sci. 63 (8): 830–833.

Cristani M, Arrigom M, Mandalari G, Castelli F, Sarpietro MG, Micieli D, Venuti V, Bisignano G, Saija A, Trombetta D (2007) Interaction of four monoterpenes con- tained in essential oils with model mem- branes: Implications for their antibacte- rial activity. J Agr Food Chem. 55(15):6300–6308.

Curtis CF, Rowland M, Good GL (2002) De- veloping a plant-based vole repellent: screening of ten candidate species. Crop prot. 21: 299–306.

Gavahian M, Farahnaky A, Javidnia K, Maj- zoobi M (2012) Comparison of ohmic- assisted hydrodistillation with tradi- tional hydrodistillation for the extrac- tion of essential oils from Thymus vulgaris L. Inno Food Sci and Emerg- ing Tech. 14: 85–91.

Hayder N, Abdelwahed A, Kilani S, Ammar RB, Mahmoud A, Ghedira K, Chekir- Ghedira L (2004) Anti-genotoxic and free-radical scavenging activities of ex- tracts from (Tunisian) Myrtus communis. Mutat Res. 564: 89–95.

Innocent E, Gikonyo NK, Nkunya MHH (2008) Repellency property of long chain ali- phatic methyl ketons against Anopheles gambiae s.s. Tanzania J Health Res.10(1): 50–54.

Jaenson TGT, Garboul S, Palsson K (2006) Repellency of oils of Lemon Eucalyp- tus, Geranium, and Lavender and the mosquito repellent MyggA natural to Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the laboratory and field. J Med Entomol.43(4): 731–736.

Katz TM, Miller JH, Herbert AA (2008) In- sect repellents: Historical perspectives and new developments. J AM Acad Dermatol. 58(5): 865–871.

Knio KM, Usta J, Dagher S, Zournajian H, Kreydiyyeh S (2008) Larvicidal activ- ity of essential oils extracted from com- monly used herbs in Lebanon against the seaside mosquito, Ochlerotatus caspius. Bioresource Technol. 99(4): 763–768.

Mahdi NK, Gany ZH, Sharief M (2006) Al- ternative drugs aginst trichomonas vaginalis. East Mediterr Health J. 12 (5): 679–684.

Martinez-Romero D, Guillen F, Valverde JM, Bailen G, Zapata P, Serrano M, Cas- tillo S, Valero D (2007) Influence of carvacrol on survival of Botrytis cinerea inoculated. Int J Food Microbiol. 115 (2): 144–148.

Moore SJ, Lenglet A, Hill N (2002) Field evaluation of three plant-based insect repellents against malaria vectors in Vaca Diez Province, the Bolivian Am- azon. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 18(2):107–110.

Nazemi Rafi J, Moharamipour S (2008) Re- pellency of Nerium oleander L., Lavandulla officinalis L. and Ferula assafoetida L. extracts on Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). IR J of Med and ARO Plants. 23(4(38)): 443–452.

Odalo J, Omolo MO, Malebo H, Angira J, Njeru PM, Ndiego IO, Hassanali A (2005) Repellency of essential oils of some plants from the Kenyan coast against Anopheles gambiae. Acta Trop.95: 210–218.

Okoh OO, Sadimenko AP, Afolayan AJ (2010) Comparative evaluation of the antibacterial activities of the essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis L. ob- tained by hydrodistillation and solvent free microwave extraction methods. Food Chem. 120: 308–312.

Omolo MO, Okinyo D, Ndiege IO, Lwande W, Hassanali A (2004) Repellency of essen- tial oils of some Kenyan plants against Anopheles gambiae. Phytochemistry.65: 2797–2802.

Oshagi MA, Ghalandari R, Vatandoost H, Shayeghi M, Kamali-nejad M, Tourabi- Khaledi H, Abolhassanni M, Hashem- zadeh M (2003) Repellent effect of extracts and essential oils of Citrus limon (Rutaceae) and Melissa officinalis (La- biatae) against main malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). Iranian J Publ Health. 32(4): 47–52.

Palsson K, Jaeson TGT (1999) Plant products used as mosquito repellents in Guinea Bissau, West Africa. Acta Trop. 72: 39–52.

Pinto E, Pina-Vaz C, Salgueiro L, Gonçalves MJ, Costa-de-Oliveira S, Cavaleiro C, Palmeira A, Rodrigues A, Martinez-de- Oliveira J (2006) Antifungal of the es- sential oil of Thymus pulegioides on Can- dida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte spe- cies. J Med Microbiol. 55(10): 1367–1373.

Seyoum A, Killeen GF, Kabiru EW, Konls BGJ, Hassanali A (2003) Field effi- cacy of thermally expelled or live pot- ted repellent plants against African malaria vectors in Western Kenya. Trop Med Int Health. 8(11): 1005–1011.

Shahidi Bonjar GH (2004) Antibacterial screening of plants used in Iranian folk- loric medicine. Fitoterapia. 75: 231–235.

Sonboli A, Sefidkon F, Yousefzadi M (2006) Antimicrobial activity and composition of the essential oil of Gontscharovia popovii from Iran. Z Natur For Sch.61(9–10): 681–684.

Stahl-Biskup E, Saez F (2002) Thyme-The genus Thymus. New York, NJ, USA: Taylor and Francis.

Traboulsi AF, Toubi K, el-Haj S, Bessiere JM, Rammal S (2002) Insecticidal proper- ties of essential plant oils against the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus (Dip- tera: Culicidae). Pest Manag Sci. 58(5):491–495.

Tavassoli M, Shayeghi M, Abai MR, Vatan- doost H, Khoobdel M, Salari M, Ghaderi A, Rafi F (2011) Repellency effects of essential oils of myrtle (myrtus commu- nis), marigold (Calendula officinalis) compared with DEET against Anophe- les stephensi on human volunteers. Iran J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 5(2): 10–22.

Uehleke H, Brinkschulte-Freitas M (1979) Oral toxicity of an essential oil from Myrtle and adaptive liver stimulation. Toxicology. 12(3): 335–342.

Vatandoost H, Hanafi-Bojd AA (2008) Labor- atory evaluation of 3 repellents against Anopheles stephensi in the Islamic Re- public of Iran. East Mediterr Health J.14(2): 260–267.

WHO (2009) Guidelines for Efficacy Testing of Mosquito Repellents for Human Skin. WHO/CDS/NTD/WHOPES/2009.4.

Yang YC, Lee HS, Clark JM, Ahn YJ (2004) Insecticidal activity of plant essential oils against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae). J Med Entomol.41(4): 699–704.

Yang P, Ma Y (2005) Repellent effect of plant essential oils against Aedes albopictus. J Vector Ecol. 30(2): 231–234.

Yi CG, Choi BR, Park HM, Park G, Ahn YJ (2006) Fumigant toxicity of plant essen- tial oils to Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Orius strigicollis (He- teroptera: Anthocoridae). J Econ Entomol.99(5): 1733–1738.

How to Cite
1.
Kayedi MH, Haghdoost AA, Salehnia A, Khamisabadi K. Evaluation of Repellency Effect of Essential Oils of Satureja khuzestanica (Carvacrol), Myrtus communis (Myrtle), Lavendula officinalis and Salvia sclarea using Standard WHO Repellency Tests. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 8(1):60-68.
Section
Articles