Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases 2007. 1(1):1-8.

Emergence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major in a New Focus of Southern Iran
AA Akhavan, MR Yaghoobi-Ershadi, F Hasibi, R Jafari, H Abdoli, MH Arandian, H Soleimani, AR Zahraei-Ramazani, M Mohebali, H Hajjaran


Reports from the health center of Kerman Province, southern Iran showed an increasing of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in Orzuieh Rural District, southwest of the province in 2003. The report encouraged the team to carry out an epidemi¬ological survey in the district during 2003-2004. The objectives were to determine the ecology of sand flies, potential reser¬voir hosts and human infection. A total of 1075 sand flies were collected by sticky traps and 7 species of sand flies were identified. They comprised 3 species of the genus Phlebotomus (P. papatasi, P. mongolensis and P. bergeroti) and 4 species of the genus Sergentomyia (S. sintoni, S. clydei, S. tiberiadis and S. baghdadis). P. papatasi was the predominant species of the genus Phlebotomus in indoors (90.3%) and outdoors (50.2%). Susceptibility tests on P. papatasi with DDT 4%. Showed that the species was susceptible to this insecticide. A total of 13 rodents consist of Tatera indica (76.9%) and Nesokia indica (23.1%) were collected. A study of prevalence among 2441 inhabitants in four villages showed a rate of 1.1% for active lesions and 10.4% for scars during November- December 2003. In a separate study examination of 1662 school children aged 6-12 years old showed 1.14% for ulcers and 14.7% for scars at the same time. The Leishmania parasites were isolated from man and characterized as Leishmania major using RAPD-PCR method. It seems that cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. major (CLM) has been prevailed in the district.


Sand flies, Epidemiology, Leishmania major, Leishmaniasis, Vector, Iran,

Full Text:



Akhavan AA, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Mehdipour D, Abdoli H, Farzinnia B, Mohebali M, Hajjaran H (2003) Epidemic Outbreak of Cu- taneous Leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major in Ghanavat Rural District, Qom Prov- ince, Central Iran. Iranian J Publ Health.32(4): 35-41.

Akhavan AA, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Mohebali M (1998) Epidemiology of cutaneous leishma- niasis in Badrood area, Natanz County, Iran: Human infection. Abstract of the First Con- gress on Medical Entomology, 1998 June 13-5, Pasteur Institute, Tehran, I.R. Iran, pp.17-18.

Edrissian GH, Zovein Z, Nadim A (1982) A simple technique for preparation of smears from the ear of Rhombomys opimus for the detection of leishmanial infection. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 76: 706-707.

Javadian E (1988) Reservoir hosts of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran, Abstracts of XIIth International Congress for Tropical Medi- cine and Malaria, 1998 September 18-23, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, p. 52.

Javadian E, Dehestani M, Nadim A, Rassi Y, Tahvildare-Bidruni GH, Seyedi-Rashti MA, Shadmehr A (1998) Confirmation of Tatera indica (Rodentia: Gerbillidae) as the main res- ervoir host of zoonotic cutaneous leishma- niasis in the west of Iran. Iranian J Publ Health. 27(1-2): 55-60.

Mohebali M, Motazedian MH, Parsa F, Hajjaran H, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR (2002) Identification of Leishmania species from different parts of Iran using a random am- plified polymorphic DNA in humans, ani- mal reservoirs and vectors. Med J IR Iran.15(34): 243-246.

Motazedian MH, Noyes H, Maingon R (2002) Leishmania and Sauroleishmania: The use of random amplified polymorphic DNA for identification of parasites from vertebrates and invertebrates. Exp Parasitol. 83(1-4):1006.

Rassi Y, Jalali M, Javadian E, Motazedian MH (2001) Confirmation of Meriones libycus (Rodentia: Gerbillidae) as the main reservoir host of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Arsanjan, Fars Province, south of Iran (1999-2000). Iranian J Publ Health. 30(3-4): 143-44.

Smart J, Jordan K, Whittick RJ (1965) Insect of Medical Importance. 4th ed. Adlen Press. Oxford.Theodor O, Mesghali A (1964) On the phle- botominae of Iran. J Med Ent. 1(3):285-300.

World Health Organization (1998) Instructions for determining the susceptibility of resis- tance of adult mosquitoes to organochlorine, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides established of the base-line. 1981. WHO/VBC/81/805.

Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Akhavan AA, Zahraei- Ramazani AR, Jalali-Zand AR, Piazak N (2005a) Bionomics of Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an endemic focus of zoonotic cutaneous eishmaniasis in central Iran. J Vect Ecol. 30(1): 115-118.

Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Zahraei-Ramazani AR, Akhavan AA, Jalali-Zand AR, Abdoli H, Nadim A (2005b) Rodent control operations against Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in rural Iran. Ann Saudi Med. 25(4): 309-312.

Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Ak- havan AA, Zahraei-Ramazani AR, Mohe- bali M (2001a) Epidemiological study in a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major in Ardestan town, central Iran. Acta Trop. 79: 115-121.

Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Akhavan AA, Mohebali M (2001b) Monthly variation of Leishmania major MON-26 infection rates in Phleboto- mus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) from rodent burrows in Badrood area of Iran. Med J IR Iran. 15(3): 175-178.

Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Ak- havan AA, Jafari R, Mohebali M (2001c) The animal reservoir hosts of cutaneous lei- shmaniasis in two endemic foci in Yazd Province. J Shahid Sadoughi Unv Med Sci.9(2): 38-43.

Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Jafari R, Zahraei- Ramazani AR, Akhavan AA, Mohebali M. (2002) Ecology of phlebbotomine sandflies in an endemic focus of cutaneous leishma- niasis in Isfahan County. J Shahid Sadoughi Unv Med Sci. 9(4): 42-48.

Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Akhavan AA, Mohebali M (1996a) Meriones libycus and Rhombo- mys opimus (Rodentia: Gerbillidae) are the main reservoir hosts in a new focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 90: 503-504.

Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Javadian E (1996b) Epidemiological study of reservoir hosts in an endemic area of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. Bull Wld Health Org.74(6): 587-590.

Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Javadian E, Tahvildare- Bidruni GH (1995) Leishmania major MON-26 isolated from naturally infected Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodi- dae) in Isfahan Province, Iran. Acta Trop.59: 279-282.

Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Javadian E, Tahvildare- Bidruni GH (1994) The isolation of Leishma-nia major from Phlebotomus (Paraphle- botomus) caucasicus in Isfahan Province. Islamic Republic of Iran. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 88: 518-519.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.