Emergence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major in a New Focus of Southern Iran
AbstractReports from the health center of Kerman Province, southern Iran showed an increasing of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in Orzuieh Rural District, southwest of the province in 2003. The report encouraged the team to carry out an epidemi¬ological survey in the district during 2003-2004. The objectives were to determine the ecology of sand flies, potential reser¬voir hosts and human infection. A total of 1075 sand flies were collected by sticky traps and 7 species of sand flies were identified. They comprised 3 species of the genus Phlebotomus (P. papatasi, P. mongolensis and P. bergeroti) and 4 species of the genus Sergentomyia (S. sintoni, S. clydei, S. tiberiadis and S. baghdadis). P. papatasi was the predominant species of the genus Phlebotomus in indoors (90.3%) and outdoors (50.2%). Susceptibility tests on P. papatasi with DDT 4%. Showed that the species was susceptible to this insecticide. A total of 13 rodents consist of Tatera indica (76.9%) and Nesokia indica (23.1%) were collected. A study of prevalence among 2441 inhabitants in four villages showed a rate of 1.1% for active lesions and 10.4% for scars during November- December 2003. In a separate study examination of 1662 school children aged 6-12 years old showed 1.14% for ulcers and 14.7% for scars at the same time. The Leishmania parasites were isolated from man and characterized as Leishmania major using RAPD-PCR method. It seems that cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. major (CLM) has been prevailed in the district.
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