Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Wild Canines (Fox, Jackal, and Wolf) in Northeastern Iran Using Parasitological, Serological, and Molecular Methods
AbstractBackground: Although many studies had been conducted on various aspects of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in domestic dogs in the endemic areas of Iran, investigations on CVL in wild canines are rare.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2012 to 2013 in northeast of Iran where human VL is endemic. Wild canines were trapped around the areas where human VL cases had been previously identified. Wild canines were collected and examined both clinically and serologically using direct agglutination test (DAT). Microscopically examinations were performed in all the seropositive wild canines for the presence of the amastigote form of Leishmania spp. Some Leishmania sp. which had been isolated from the spleens of wild canines, were examined analyzed by conventional PCR and sequencing techniques using α-tubulin and GAPDH genes.Results: Altogether, 84 wild canines including foxes (Vulpes vulpes, n=21), Jackals (Canis aureus, n=60) and wolves (Canis lupus, n=3) were collected. Four foxes and seven jackals showed anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies with titers of 1:320–1:20480 in DAT. Furthermore, one fox and one jackal were parasitologically (microscopy and culture) positive and L. infantum was confirmed by sequence analysis.Conclusion: The present study showed that sylvatic cycle of L. infantum had been established in the studied endemic areas of VL in northeastern Iran.
Arzamani K (2012) Visceral leishmaniasis in North Khorasan Province, north east of Iran, 15th International Congress on Infectious Diseases. June 13–16,2012. Bangkok, Thailand.
Boelaert M, Safi S, Jacquet D, Muynck A, Van der Stuyft P, Le Ray D (1999) Operational validation of the direct agglutination test for diagnosis of vis- ceral leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 60(1): 129–134.
Edrissian GhH (1996a) Visceral leishmania- sis in Iran and the role of serological tests in diagnosis and epidemiologi- cal studies. Parasitology for 21st Century (ICOPA VIII). CAB Inter- national. Izmir, Turkey, pp. 63–78.
Edrissian GhH, Hajjaran H, Mohebali M, Soleimanzadeh G, Bokaei S (1996b) Application and evaluation of direct agglutination test in serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in man and ca- nine reservoirs in Iran. Iranian J Med Sci. 21: 119–124.
Hajjaran H, Mohebali M, Mamishi S, Va- sigheh F, Oshaghi MA, Naddaf SR, Teimouri A, Edrissian GH, Zarei Z (2013) Molecular identification and polymorphism determination of cutane- ous and visceral leishmaniasis agents isolated from human and animal hosts in Iran. Biomed Res Int. Article ID:789326: 1–7.
Hamilton PB, Gibson WC, Stevens JR (2007) Patterns of co-evolution between tryp- anosomes and their hosts deduced from ribosomal RNA and protein- coding gene phylogenies. Mol Phylo- genetics Evol. 44: 15–25.
Hamilton PB, Stevens JR, Gaunt MW, Gid- ley J, Gibson WC (2004) Trypano- somes are monophyletic: evidence from genes for glyceraldehyde phos- phate dehydrogenase and small sub- unit ribosomal RNA. Int J Parasitol.34:1393–1404.
Harith A, Kolk AHJ, Kager PA, Leeuwen- burg J, Muigai R, Kiugu S, Kiugu S, Laarman JJ (1986) A simple and eco- nomical direct agglutination test for serodiagnosis and sero-epidemiologi- cal studies of visceral leishmaniasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 80: 583–587.
Harith A, Salappendel RJ, Reiter I, Knapen F, Korte P, Huigen E, Jelsma T, Ka- ger PA (1989) Improvement of direct agglutination test for field studies of visceral leishmaniasis. J Clin Micro- biol. 26(7): 13221–13225.
Kazemi-Rad E, Mohebali M, Khadem-Erfan MB, Saffari M, Raoofian R, Hajjaran H, Hadighi R, Khamesipour A, Rezaie S, Abedkhojasteh H, Heidari M (2013) Identification of antimony resistance markers in Leishmania tropica field isolates through a cDNA-AFLP ap- proach. Exp Parasitol. 135(2): 344–349.
Marcili A, Sperança MAp, Costa AP, Ma- deira M de F, Soares HS, Sanches COCC, Acosta ICL, Girotto A, Mi- nervino AHH, Horta MC, Shaw JF, Gennari SM (2014) Phylogenetic relationships of Leishmania species based on trypanosomatid barcode (SSU rDNA) and gGAPDH genes:Taxonomic revision of Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi in South America Infection. Genetics Evol. 25: 44–51.
Mohebali M (2013) Visceral leishmaniasis in Iran: Review of the Epidemiological and Clinical Features. Iranian J Para- sitol. 8(3): 348–358.
Mohebali M, Edrissian Gh H, Nadim A, Hajjaran H, Akhoundi B, Hooshmand B, Zarei Z, Arshi Sh, N Mirsamadi, K Manouchehri Naeini, S Mamishi, AA Sanati, AA Moshfe, S Charehdar, M Fakhar (2006) Application of direct agglutination test (DAT) for the diag- nosis and seroepidemiological studies of visceral leishmaniasis in Iran. Ira- nian J Parasitol. 1(1): 15–25.
Mohebali M, Edrissian GhH, Shirzadi MR, Akhoundi B, Hajjaran H, Zarei Z, Molaei S, Sharifi I, Mamishi S, Mah- moudvand H, Torabi V, Moshfe A, Malmasi A, Motazedian MH, Fakhar M (2011) An observational study on the current distribution of visceral leishmaniasis in different geograph- ical zones of Iran and implication to health policy. Travel Med Infect Dis.9(2): 67–74.
Mohebali M, Hajjaran H, Hamzavi Y, Mobedi I, Arshi S, Zarei Z, Akhoundi B, Naeini KM, Avizeh R, Fakhar M (2005) Epidemiological aspects of canine visceral leishmaniasis in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Vet Parasi- tol. 129(3–4): 243–251.
Oshaghi M A, Maleki Ravasan N, Javadian E, Mohebali M, Hajjaran H, Zare Z, Mohtarami F, Rassi Y (2009) Vector incrimination of sand flies in the most important visceral leishmaniasis focus in Iran. Am J Trop Med Hyg.81(4): 572–577.
Peacock ChP, Seeger K, Harris D, MurphyL, Ruiz JC, Quail MA, Peters N, Adlem E, Tivey A, Aslett M, Kerhornou A, Ivens A, Fraser A, Rajandream MA, Carver T, Norbertczak H, Chillingworth T, Hance Z, Jagels K, Moule S, Ormond D, Rutter S, Squares R, Whitehead S, Rabbinowitsch E, Arrowsmith C, White B, Thurston S, Bringaud F, Baldauf SL, Faulconbridge A, Jeffares D, Depledge DP, Oyola SO, Hilley JD, Brito LO, Tosi LR, Barrell B, Cruz AK, Mottram JC, Smith DF, Berriman M (2007) Com- parative genomic analysis of three Leishmania species that cause diverse human disease. Nat Genet. 39(7):839–847.
Rassi Y, Javadian E, Nadim A, Rafizadeh S, Zahraii A, Azizi K, Mohebali M (2009) Phlebotomus perfiliewi Trans- caucasicus, a vector of Leishmania infantum in northwestern Iran. J Med Entomol. 46: 1094–1098.
Sheppard HW and Dwyer DM (1986) Clon- ing of Leishmania donovani genes encoding antigens recognized during human visceral leishmaniasis. Mol Bi- ochem Parasitol. 19: 35–43.
World Health Organization Control of the leishmaniases (2010) Technical Re- port Series 949, Report of a meeting of the WHO Expert Committee on the Control of Leishmaniases. Ge- neva, 22–26 March.
Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR (2012) Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Iran and their role on Leishmania transmission. J Arthropod-Borne Dis.6(1): 1–17.
Tesh R (1995) Control of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis: is it time to change strateries?. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 57:287–292