A Comparative Study of Nesting Sites and Burrowing Habits of two Iranian Burrowing Scorpions
AbstractBackground: The different features of scorpions can be successfully described by their nesting and burrowing behaviors. There is little information about burrowing activity of Iranian scorpions.Methods: The current study was performed to compare the burrowing behavior between two burrowing Iranian scorpions, Scorpio maurus and Odonthubutus bidentatus by describing 30 nests of each species regarding collecting the scorpions. Results: Scorpio maurus and O. bidentatus have a tendency to make nest with elliptical, round-like entrance and oval shape with arch at the top, respectively. There was not any significant difference between nest entrance properties of two scorpions. One-way ANOVA test showed that the height and diameter of two species nests were not significantly different. A Pearson correlation also showed a relative strong direct relationship between height and diameter of S. maurus nests than O. bidentatus. This correlation was not significant in the case of O. bidentatus. The results provided additional habitat information of scorpions.Conclusion: The nests morphology characteristics of two Iranian scorpions including shape, depth, length and diameter depend are different from each other based on the following factors: species, soil texture, soil moisture and region conditions.
Cala-Riquelme F, Colombo M (2011) Ecol- ogy of the scorpion, Microtityus jaumei in Sierra de Canasta, Cuba. J Insect Sci.11: 86.
Clousley-Thompson JL (1965) The scorpion.Science J.1: 35–41.
Day PR (1982) Particle Fractionation and Particle-Size Analysis. In: R.H. Miller RH and Keeney DR (Editors). Chemi- cal and Microbiological Properties. Soil Science Society of American Inc. pp.545–567.
Dehghani R ,Tirgari S, Droudgar A (1991) Study of nest architecture .of scorpion Odontobuthus doriae in Esfahan Prov- ince. Feyz. 1(2): 81–86 (Persian with English Summary).
Farzanpey R (1987) Scorpion Knowledge.Iran Academic Press (Persian). Farzanpey R (1988) A catalogue of the scor-pions occurring in Iran, up to January 1986. Revue Arachnologique. 8: 33–44.
Fet V, Soleglad ME (2005) Contributions to scorpion systematic. I. On recent chang-es in high-level taxonomy. Euscorpius.31: 1–13.
Hadley NF (1974) Adaptational biology of desert scorpions. I . Arachnol. 2: 11–23.
Harington A (1978) Burrowing biology of the scorpion Cheloctonus jonesii Po- cock Arachnida: Scorpionida: Scorpi- onidae). J Arachnology. 5: 243–249.
Hembree ID, Johnson LM, Tenwalde RW (2012) Neoichnology of the desert scor- pion Hadrurus arizonensis: burrows to biogenic cross lamination. Palaeonto- logia Electronica. 15(1).
Jalali A, Moazen S, Babaee M, Dadashzade S, Droudi A (2010) The pharmacoki- netics of Iranian scorpion Odonthubu- thus doriae venom and the available antivenom. J Venom Res. 1: 48–53.
Jalali A, Vatanpour H, Hosseininasab Z, Rowan EG, Harvey AL (2007) The effect of the venom of the yellow Iranian scor-pion Odontobuthus doriae on skeletal muscle preparations in vitro. Toxicon.50: 1019–1026.
Navidpour S, Kovarík F, Soleglad ME, Fet V (2008) Scorpions of Iran (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part I. Khuzestan Prov- ince. Euscorpius. 65: 1–41.
Masihipour B, Zare AM, Navidpour SH, Taghavi Moghadam A, Akbari A, Ra- biei H (2009) Identification and Purifi- cation of the three toxins from Odoto- buthus bidentatus, Lourenco and Pez-ier 2002, venom (Scorpions, Buthidae). J Bio Sci. 9: 494-498.
Prendni L, Wheeler WC (2005) Scorpion higher phylogeny and classification, tax- onomic anarchy, and standards for peer review in online publishing. Cladistics.21: 446–494.
Rutin J (1996) The burrowing activity of scorpions (Scorpio maurus palmatus) and their potential contribution to the erosion of Hamra soils in Karkur, central Israel. Geomorphology. 15: 159–168.
Shehab AH, Zuhair Amr S, Lindsell AJ (2011) Ecology and biology of scorpions in Palmyra, Syria. Turkish J Zoology.35: 333–341.
Vazirianzadeh B, Samie M (2006) Epidemi- ological study of scorpionism in the Khuzestan. 2nd Congress of Medical Entomology Tehran, Iran, pp. 24–26.
Vazirianzadeh B (1989) Taxonomy, mor- phology and comparative study of Bio- Ecology and night promenade of three species of scorpions (Khuzestan, Iran) [MS thesis in Medical Entomology]. School of Public Health, Tehran Uni- versity of Medical Sciences. p. 115. (Persian).