Repellency Effect of Essential Oils of Some Native Plants and Synthetic Repellents against Human Flea, Pulex irritans (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae)

  • Mohammad Bagher Ghavami Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, Faculty of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran
  • Fahimeh Poorrastgoo Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, Faculty of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran
  • Behrooz Taghiloo Zanjan Health Center, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran
  • Jamshid Mohammadi Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, Faculty of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran
Keywords: Pulex irritans, Ziziphora tenuiore, Myrtus communis, DEET, Repellents

Abstract

Background: Fleas are important vectors of human and animal disease, and control measures for protection against their bites and flea-borne diseases are necessary.Methods: The essential oils (EOs) of four native medicinal plants, Ziziphora tenuiore, Myrtus communis, Achillea wilhelmsii and Mentha piperita were isolated by hydrodistillation technique and analyzed by GC-MC. The repellent activity of EOs and synthetic compounds, DEET and permethrin, were assayed on human subjects against field col­lected fleas. The effective doses of 50% and 90% of EOs and synthetic compounds were estimated by probit analysis of dose and response regression line.Results: Analysis of EOs revealed about 19 major components. All oils were found to be more repellent (ED50 range= 208–955µg cm-2) than DEET and permethrin (ED50 range= 27–182 x 103 µg cm-2). Thyme and myrtle oils showed high repellent activities and among the total detected terpenes, thymol (36.26%) and α- pinene (32.5%) were the major components of those oils respectively.Conclusion: Low repellent potency of DEET and permethrin against fleas might be related to flea olfactory system and further molecular and electrophysiological studies are required to conceive new ideas for the discovery and de­velopment of the next generation of repellents. Based on high repellent activity of thyme and myrtle essential oils against Pulex irritans further studies should be staged to develop their appropriate effective formulations. Likewise, field trials should be carried out to evaluate the operational feasibility and dermal toxicity over a long period.

References

Bakkali F, Averbeck S, Averbeck D, Ida- omar M (2008) Biological effects of essential oils. A review.Food and Chem- ical Toxicology. 46: 446–475.

Bissinger BW, Roe RM (2010) Tick repel- lents: Past, present, and future. Pestic Biochem Physiol. 96: 63–79.

Bohbot JD, Dickens JC (2012) Odorant re- ceptor modulation: ternary paradigm for mode of action of insect repellents. Neuropharmacology. 62: 2086–2095.

Dautel H (2004) Test systems for tick repel- lents. Int J Med Microbiol. 293(37):182–188.

Debboun M, Stephen P.Frances SP, Strick- man D (2014) Insect Repellents Hand- book,Second Edition.CRC Press.

Del Fabbro S, Nazzi F (2013) Correction: From Chemistry to Behavior. Molecu- lar Structure and Bioactivity of Repel- lents against Ixodes ricinus Ticks. PLoS ONE 8(7): 10.1371/annotation/6636cea1-b3f2-4f93-acf7-b34c5aabce07.doi:10.1371/annotation/6636cea1-b3f2-4f93- acf7-b34c5aabce0.

Dickens JC, Bohbot JD (2013) Mini review: Mode of action of mosquito repellents. Pestic Biochem Physiol. 106(3): 149–155.

Ditzen M, Pellegrino M, Voshall LB (2008) Insect odorant receptors are molecular targets of the insect repellent DEET. Science. 319: 838–842.

Dolan MC, Jordan RA, Schulze TL, Schulze CJ, Mannig MC, Ruffolo D, Schmidt JP, Piesman J, Karchesy JJ (2009) Abil- ity of two natural products, Nootkatone and Carvacrol, to suppress Ixodesscap- ularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) in a lyme disease en- demic area of New Jersey. J Econ En- tomol. 102(6): 2316–2324.

El-Seedi H, Kalil NS, Azeem M, Taher EA (2012) Chemical composition and repellency of essential oils from four medicinal plants against Ixodesricinus nymphs (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med En- tomol. 49(5): 1067–1075.

Faulde MK, Uedelhoven WM, Malerius M, Robbins RG (2006) Factory-based per- methrin impregnation of uniforms: re- sidual activity against Aedes aegypti and Ixodesricinus in bottle dress uniforms worn under field condition and cross- contamination during the laundering and storage process. Mil Med. 171:472–477.

Faulde MK, Uedelhoven WM, Robbins RG (2003) Contact toxicity and residual activity of different permethrin-based fabric impregnation methods for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), Ixodesrici- nus (Acari: Ixodidae) and Lepisma saccharina (Thysanura: Lepismatidae). J Med Entomol. 40: 935–941.

George DR, Guy JH, Arkle S,Harrington D, Luna CD, Okello EJ, Shiel RS,Port G, SparaganoOAE (2008) Use of plant- derived products to control arthropods of veterinary importance: A review. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1149: 23–26

George DR, Sparagano OAE, Okello GPE, Shiel RS, Guy JH (2009) Repellence of plant essential oils to Dermanyssus gallinae and toxicity to the non-target invertebrate Tenebrio molitor. Vet Par- asitol. 162: 129–134.

George DR, Finn RD, Graham KM, Spara- gano OAE (2014) Present and future potential of plant-derived products to control arthropods of veterinary and medical significance. Parasit Vectors.7(28): 2–12.

Govindarajan M, Sivakumar R (2015) La- boratory evaluation of Indian medici- nal plants as repellents against malaria, dengue and filariasis vector mosqui- toes. Parasitol Res. 114: 601–612.

Hemingway J, Ranson H (2000) Insecticide resistance in insect vectors of human disease. Annual Rev Entomology. 45:371–391.

Jordan RA, Schulze T, Dolan MC (2012) Efficacy of plant-derived and synthetic compounds on clothing as repellents against Ixodes scapularis and Amblyom- ma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol. 49(1): 101–106.

Kang S, Kim M, Seo D, Noh D, Yang J, Yoon C, KimG (2009) Comparative Re- pellency of essential oils against Culex- pipiens Pallen (Diptera: Culicidae). J Korean Soc Appl Biol Chem. 52(4):353–359.

Klun JA, Strickman D, Rowton E, Williams J, Kramer M, Roberts D, Debboun M (2004) Comparative resistance of Anoph- eles albimanus and Aedes aegyptito N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (Deet) and

-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexen-1car- boxamide (AI3-37220) in laboratory human-volunteer repellent assays. J Med Entomol. 41: 418–422.

Koc S, Oz E, Cetin H (2012) Repellent ac- tivities of some Labiatae plant essen- tial oils against the saltmarsh mosquito Ochlerotatuscaspius (Pallas, 1771) (Dip- tera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res. 110:2205–2209

Koul O, Walla S, Dhaliwal GS (2008) Essen- tial oils as green pesticides: potential and constraints. Biopestic Int. 4(1): 63–84.

Krober T, Bourquin M, Guerin PM (2013) A standaised in vivo and in vitro test method for evaluating tick repellents. Pestic Biochem Physiol. 107: 160–168.

Kumar P, Shra MI, Malik A, Satya S (2011) Repellent, larvicidal and pupicidal prop- erties of essential oils and their formu- lations against the housefly, Musca do- mestica. Med Vet Entomol. 25: 302–310

Lupi E, Hatz C, Schlagenhauf P (2013) The efficacy of repellents against Aedes, Anopheles, Culex and Ixodes spp. A literature review. Travel Medicine and Infection Diseases. 11: 374–411.

Maia MF, Moore S (2011) Plant based insect repellents: a review of their efficacy, development and testing. Malaria J.10(1): S11.

Manikkam M, Guerrero-Bosagna C, Tracey R, Haque MM, Skinner MK (2012) Trans generational actions of environ- mental compounds on reproductive dis- ease and identification of epigenetic biomarkers of ancestral exposures. PLOS ONE. 7(2): e31901.

Meng H, Li AY, Costa Junior LM, Castro-Arellano J, Liu J (2015 ) Evaluation of DEET and eight essential oils for re- pellency against nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Ac- ari: Ixodidae). Exp Appl Acarol. 68(2):241–249.

Naghibi F, Mosaddegh M, Motamed M (2005) Labiatae family in folk medicine in Iran: from ethonobotany to phar- macology. Iran J Pharm Res. 2: 63–79.

Neiro LS, Olivero-Velber J, Stashenko E (2010) Repellent activity of essential oils: a review. Bioresource Technology.101: 372–378.

Odalo JO, Omolo MO, Malebo H, Anjira J, Njeru PM, Ndiege IO, Hassanali A (2005) Repellency of essential oils of some plants from the Kenyan coast against Anopheles gambiae. Acta Trop- ica. 95: 210–218.

Pandey SK, Upadhyay S, Tripathi AK (2009) Insecticidal and repellent activities of thymol from the essential oil of Tra- chyspermum ammi (Linn) Sprague seeds against Anopheles stephensi. Parasitol Res. 105: 507–512.

Park YU, Koo HN, Kim GH (2012) Chemi-cal composition, larvicidal action, and adult repellency of Thymus magnus against Aedes albopictus. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 28(3): 192–198.

Pellegrino M, Steinbach N, Stensmyr MC, Hansson BS, Vosshall LB (2011) A natural polymorphism alters odor and DEET sensitivity in an insect odorant receptor. Nature. 478: 511–514.

Pitarokili D, Michaelakis A, Koliopoulos G, Giatropoulos A, Tzakou O (2011) Chem- ical composition, larvicidal evaluation, and adult repellency of endemic Greek thymus essential oils against the mos- quito vector of West Nile virus. Parasi- tol Res. 109: 425–430.

Qui H, Jun HW, McCall JW (1998) Pharma- cokinetics, formulation, and safety of insect repellent N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET): A review. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 14: 12–27.

Saeidnia S, Ghohari AR, Mokhber-Dezfuli N, Kiuchi F (2011) A review on phy- tochemistry and medicinal properties of the genus Achillea. Daru. 19(3): 173–186.

Service MW (2012) Medical Entomology for Students. 5th Edition. Cambridge Uni- versity Press. London.

Sfara V, Mougabure-Cueto G, Zerba EN, Alzogaray RA (2011) Adaptation of the repellency response to DEET in Rhodnius prolixus. J Insect Physiol. 57:1431–1436.

Stanczyk NM, Brookfield JFY, Ignell R, Logan JG, Field LM (2010) Behav- ioral insensitivity to DEET in Aedes aegypti is a genetically determined trait residing in changes in sensillum function. Proc Natl Acad ci,USA.107:8575–8580.

Sudakin DL, Trevathan WR (2003) Deet: a review and update of safety and risk in the general population. J Toxicol Clin Clin Toxicol. 41: 831.

Swale DR, Sun B, Tong F, Bloomquist JR (2014) Neurotoxicity and mode of action of N,N- diethyl-Meta Tolamide (DEET). PLOS ONE. 9(8): e103713.

Tavassoli M, Shayeghi M, Abai MR, Vatan- doost H, Khoobdel M, Salari M, Ghaderi A, Rafi F (2011) Repellency Effects of Essential Oils of Myrtle (Myrtuscommunis), Marigold (Calendula officinalis) Compared with DEET against Anopheles stephension Human Volun- teers. Iran J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 5(2):10–22.

Traboulsi AF, Taoubi K, El-Haj S, Bessiere JM, Rammal S (2002) Insecticidal prop- erties of essential plant oils against the mosquito Culexpipiensmolestus (Dip- tera: Culicidae). Pest Management Sci- ence. 58: 491–495.

World Health Organization (2013) Repellent and Toxicants for Personal Protection.WHO/CDS/WHOPES/GCDPP/2000.5.

Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Akhavan AA, Ja-hanifard E, Vatandoost H, Amin Gh, Moosavi L, Zahraei-Ramazani AR, Abdoli H, Arandian MH (2000) Re- pellency Effect of Myrtle Essential Oil and DEET against Phlebotomus papa- tasi, under laboratory conditions. Ira- nian J Publ Health. 35(3): 7–13.

Yu SJ (2014) The Toxicology and Bio- chemistry of Insecticides.Second Edi- tion. CRC Press.

Published
2017-04-18
How to Cite
1.
Ghavami MB, Poorrastgoo F, Taghiloo B, Mohammadi J. Repellency Effect of Essential Oils of Some Native Plants and Synthetic Repellents against Human Flea, Pulex irritans (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). J Arthropod Borne Dis. 11(1):105-115.
Section
Original Article