Field Evaluation of Outdoor Ultra-low Volume (ULV) Applications against Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Al Rabta, North-West of Libya
AbstractBackground: Al Rabta is a rural area in the North-West of Libya that represents an important focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Ultra Low Volume (ULV) applications in controlling sand flies and its impact on leishmaniasis transmission in this area.Methods: Two neighboring villages were selected: Al Rabta West (RW) as cypermethrin treated village and Al Rabta East (RE) as check one. The ULV was evaluated through 3 spraying cycles during Apr, Jun and Sep 2013. In the two villages, a number of outdoor sites were selected for sampling of sand flies (twice a month) using the CDC light traps. The cases of CL reported in the two villages during the study period were obtained from Al Rabta health center.Results: The two villages were similar where 9 species of sand flies (6 of Phlebotomu and 3 of Sergentomyia) were collected of which S. minuta and P. papatasi were the abundant species. As compared to the pre- ULV spraying, during the post- spraying periods: i) the reduction in abundance of the different species ranged from 20.85 to 77.52% with 46.69% as an overall reduction for all species altogether and, ii) in significantly (P˃ 0.05) higher mean ratio of males: females for all species altogether (1:2.41). Moreover, ULV spraying resulted in the absence of CL (Leishmania major) cases (Passive Case Detection)Conclusion: The efficiency of ULV spraying in reducing sand fly population, CL cases and consequently limits the disease transmission.
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