Field Evaluation of Outdoor Ultra-low Volume (ULV) Applications against Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Al Rabta, North-West of Libya

  • Mostafa Ramahdan Dokhan National Center for Disease Control, Ministry of Health, Tripoli, Libya Zoology Department, Faculty of Sciences, Sabratha, University of Zawia., Zawia, Libya
  • Mohamed Amin Kenawy Department of Entomology, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo 11566, Egypt
  • Taher Shaibi National Center for Disease Control, Ministry of Health, Tripoli, Libya Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, University of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya
  • Badereddin Bashir Annajar National Center for Disease Control, Ministry of Health, Tripoli, Libya Public Health Department, Faculty of Medical Technology, University of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya
Keywords: Sand flies, ULV application, CL cases, Libya


Background: Al Rabta is a rural area in the North-West of Libya that represents an important focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Ultra Low Volume (ULV) applications in control­ling sand flies and its impact on leishmaniasis transmission in this area.Methods: Two neighboring villages were selected: Al Rabta West (RW) as cypermethrin treated village and Al Rabta East (RE) as check one. The ULV was evaluated through 3 spraying cycles during Apr, Jun and Sep 2013. In the two villages, a number of outdoor sites were selected for sampling of sand flies (twice a month) using the CDC light traps. The cases of CL reported in the two villages during the study period were obtained from Al Rabta health center.Results: The two villages were similar where 9 species of sand flies (6 of Phlebotomu and 3 of Sergentomyia) were collected of which S. minuta and P. papatasi were the abundant species. As compared to the pre- ULV spraying, during the post- spraying periods: i) the reduction in abundance of the different species ranged from 20.85 to 77.52% with 46.69% as an overall reduction for all species altogether and, ii) in significantly (P˃ 0.05) higher mean ratio of males: females for all species altogether (1:2.41). Moreover, ULV spraying resulted in the absence of CL (Leishmania major) cases (Passive Case Detection)Conclusion: The efficiency of ULV spraying in reducing sand fly population, CL cases and consequently limits the disease transmission. 


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How to Cite
Dokhan MR, Kenawy MA, Shaibi T, Annajar BB. Field Evaluation of Outdoor Ultra-low Volume (ULV) Applications against Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Al Rabta, North-West of Libya. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 11(3):393-402.
Original Article