Hemodynamic Changes in Experimentally Envenomed Anaesthetized Rats by Intravenous Injection of Hemiscorpius lepturus Venom

  • Khalil Pourkhalili Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran
  • Hossein Fatemikia Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
  • Euikyung Kim College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, South Korea
  • Navid Reza Mashayekhy Department of Cardiology, Amir Kabir Hospital, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
  • Naser Mohammadpour Dounighi Department of Human Vaccine and Serum, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Karaj, Iran
  • Abdollah Hajivandi Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Health, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran
  • Yaghoob Hassan Student Research Committee, Bushehr University of Medical Science, Bushehr, Iran
  • Ramin Seyedian Department of Pharmacology, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran
Keywords: Hemiscorpius lepturus, Vasoconstriction, Polyvalent antivenom

Abstract

Background: We investigated the hemodynamic changes (Inotropic, chronotropic and arrhythmogenic) in intrave­nously envenomed anesthetized rats with Hemiscorpius lepturus venom. The neutralizing potencies of different drugs and commercial antivenom were assessed simultaneously.Methods: Different doses of the crude venom (100, 200 and 400μg/rat) were injected during five minutes via the femoral vein and cardiovascular changes were recorded in rats in Razi Institute Corporation, Karaj, Iran in 2017. The drugs (Atropine, lidocaine, propranolol and prazosin) were injected before the venom for determination of the coun­teracting effects. Different volumes (100, 500 and 1000µl) of the antivenom were pre envenomed to neutralize cardi­ovascular changes.Results: Temporary hypertension and bradycardia with no arrhythmogenic effects were depicted within twenty minutes. There was a difference in arterial pressure between the venom (400μg/rat) and the vehicle at 8 minutes (114.68±5.1mmHg versus 70.2±4.3mmHg). Elevation of the mean arterial pressure was inhibited by propranolol (2 mg/kg) and neutralized by prazosin (1mg/kg) while lidocaine (4mg/kg) and atropine (1mg/kg) had no effects. Pre­medication with Iranian commercial antivenom (1000μl) produced surprisingly temporary hypertension compared to the vehicle (140.84±4.5 versus 84.3±3.2). It had no neutralizing properties on blood pressure variation before the venom injection. Volume-expanded hypertension phenomenon was ruled out in a parallel study.Conclusion: This venom has vasoconstrictive effects in rats probably due to the presence of norepinephrine like ma­terials in its content or liberated from adrenal gland inhibited by prazosin premedication. The neutralizing effects of antivenom on venom-induced hypertension are questionable.

References

Isbister GK, Bawaskar HS (2014) Scorpion envenomation. N Engl J Med. 371 (5): 457–463.

Chippaux JP, Goyffon M (2008) Epidemi¬ology of scorpionism: a global ap¬prais¬al. Acta Trop. 107(2): 71–79.

Diaz P, Chowell G, Ceja G, D'auria T, Lloyd R, Castillo-Chavez C (2005) Pediatric electrocardiograph abnor-mal¬ities following Centruroides limpidus tecomanus scorpion envenomation. Tox¬icon. 45(1): 27–31.

Freire-Maia L, Campos J, Amaral C (1994) Approaches to the treatment of scor¬pion envenoming. Toxicon. 32(9): 1009–1014.

Shahbazzadeh D, Amirkhani A, Djadid ND, Bigdeli S, Akbari A, Ahari H, Amini H, Dehghani R (2009) Epidemio¬logi-cal and clinical survey of scorpion-ism in Khuzestan Province, Iran (2003). Toxicon. 53(4): 454–459.

Latifi M, Tabatabai M (1979) Immunologi¬cal studies on Iranian scorpion ven¬om and antiserum. Toxicon. 17(6): 617–620.

Jalali A, Rahim F (2014) Epidemiological review of scorpion envenomation in Iran. Iran J Pharm Res. 13(3): 743–756.

Dehghani R, Fathi B (2012) Scorpion stingin Iran: a review. Toxicon. 60(5): 919–933.

Jalali A, Pipelzadeh MH, Sayedian R, Rowan E (2010) A review of epide-mio¬logical, clinical and in vitro physiological studies of envenomation by the scorpion H. lepturus (Hemiscor¬piidae) in Iran. Toxicon. 55(2): 173–179.

Valavi E, Alemzadeh AM, Hoseini S (2011) The causes of hemolytic uremic syndrome in stung patients with H. lepturus scorpion. IJKD. 5(1): 34–35.

Jalali A, Pipelzadeh M, Seyedian R, Rah¬mani A, Omidian N (2011) In vivo pharmacological study on the effec-tiveness of available polyclonal an-tivenom against H. lepturus venom. J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis. 17(2): 142–149.

Abroug F, ElAtrous S, Nouria S, Hagui-ga H, Touzi N, Bouchoucha S (1999) Serotherapy in scorpion en¬ven¬omation: a randomised controlled trial. The Lan¬cet. 354(9182): 906–909.

Rodrigo C, Gnanathasan A (2017) Man-agement of scorpion envenoming: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Syst Rev. 6(1): 74.

Dias-Lopes C, Felicori L, Guimarães G, Gomes ER, Roman-Campos D, Du-arte H, Damasceno D, Martins M, Kalapothakis E, Almeida AP, Gra-nier C, Cruz JS, Guatimosim S, Chá-vez-Olórtegui C (2010) Cardiotoxic effects of Loxosceles intermedia spider venom and the recombinant venom tox¬in rLiD1. Toxicon. 56(8): 1426–1435.

Pourkhalili K, Kim E, Mashayekhy NR, Kamyab M, Hoseiny SM, Evazy R, Zare Mirakabadi A, Seyedian R (2014) Cardiotoxic and Arrhythmogenic Ef-fects of H. lepturus Scorpion Venom in Rats. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 9(2): 215–225.

Ramage A (2001) Central cardiovascular regulation and 5-hydroxytryptamine re-ceptors. Brain Res Bull. 56(5): 425–439.

Possani LD, Becerril B, Delepierre M, Tytgat J (1999) Scorpion toxins spe-cific for Na+‐channels. Eur J Bio-chem. 264(2): 287–300.

Fet V, Gantenbein B, Gromov A, Lowe G, Lourenço WR (2003) The first mo¬lecular phylogeny of Buthidae (Scor¬piones). Euscorpius. 4: 1–10.

Dehghani R, Rafinejad J, Fathi B, Panjeh-Shahi M, Jazayeri M, Hashemi A (2017) A Retrospective Study on Scropionism in Iran (2002–2011). J Arthropod Borne Dis. 11(2): 194–203.

Dehghani R, Hashemi A, Charkhloo E, Hosseini S (2016) Confrontation with Scorpions as an Environmental Per¬ma¬nent Risk in Iran: A Review. Arch Hyg Sci. 5(2): 136–144.

Zayerzadeh E, Koohi M, Zare Mirakabadi A, Purkabireh M, Kassaaian S, Rab¬bani S, Sotoudeh Anvari M, Bor¬oumand MA, Sadeghian S (2010) Car-diopulmonary complications induced by Iranian Mesobuthus eupeus scor¬pion venom in anesthetized rabbits. J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis. 16(1): 46–59.

Mirakabbadi A, Zolfagharian H, Hedayat A, Jalali A (2007) Clinical and bio-chemical manifestation produced by scorpion (Hemiscorpius lepturus) ven¬om in experimental animals. J Ven¬om Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis. 13(4): 758–765.

Heidarpour M, Ennaifer E, Ahari H, Srairi-Abid N, Borchani L, Khalili G, Amini H, Anvar AA, Boubaker S, El-Ayeb M, Shahbazzadeh D (2012) Histopathological changes induced by Hemiscorpius lepturus scorpion ven¬om in mice. Toxicon. 59(3): 373–378.

Ramasamy S, Isbister GK, Seymour JE, Hodgson WC (2004) The in vivo car¬diovascular effects of box jellyfish Chi¬ronex fleckeri venom in rats: ef¬ficacy of pre-treatment with an¬ti-venom, verapamil and magnesium sulphate. Toxicon. 43(6): 685–690.

Kim E, Lee S, Kim J-S, Yoon WD, Lim D, Hart AJ, Hodgson WC (2006) Cardiovascular effects of Nemo¬pilema nomurai (Scyphozoa: Rhi¬zostomeae) jellyfish venom in rats. Toxicol Lett. 167(3): 205–211.

Zeghal K, Sahnoun Z, Guinot M, Richer C, Giudicelli JF (2000) Characteri-za¬tion and mechanisms of the cardio¬vas-cular and haemodynamic altera¬tions in-duced by scorpion venom in rats. Fun-dum Clin Pharmacol. 14(4): 351–361.

Fatani A, Furman B, Zeitlin I (1998) The involvement of plasma kinins in the cardiovascular effects of Leiurus quin¬questriatus scorpion venom in anaes¬thetised rabbits. Toxicon. 36(3): 523–536.

Gueron M, Adolph RJ, Grupp IL, Gabel M, Grupp G, Fowler NO (1980) He-mo¬dynamic and myocardial con¬se-quences of scorpion venom. Am J Car¬diol. 45(5): 979–986.

Teixeira AL, Fontoura BF, Freire-Maia L, Machado CR, Camargos ER, Teixei¬ra MM (2001) Evidence for a direct ac-tion of Ti¬tyus serrulatus scorpion venom on the cardiac muscle. Toxicon. 39(5): 703–709.

Freire-Maia L, Pinto G, Franco I (1974) Mechanism of the cardiovascular ef-fects produced by purified scorpion toxin in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 188(1): 207–213.

Mahmoodi Khatoonabadi S, Zare Miraka¬badi A, Teimoorzadeh S (2016) Anti-venom injection time related effects of Hemiscorpius lepturus scorpion en¬venomation in rabbits. Arch Razi Inst. 66(2): 139–145.

Moss J, Kazic T, Henry DP, Kopin IJ (1973) Scorpion venom-induced dis-charge of catecholamlnes accompanied by hypertension. Brain Res. 54: 381–385.

Gwee MC, Nirthanan S, Khoo HE, Go-palakrishnakone P, Kini RM, Cheah LS (2002) Autonomic effects of some scorpion venoms and toxins. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 29(9): 795–801.

Noguchi K, Sakanashi M, Matsuzaki T, Nakasone J, Sakanashi M, Koyama T, Hamadate N, Sakanashi M (2005) Cardiovascular effects and lethality of venom from nematocysts of the box-jellyfish Chiropsalmus quadrigatus (Habu-kurage) in anaesthetized rats. Toxicon. 45(4): 519–526.

Hopkins BJ, Hodgson WC (1998) Car-diovascular studies on venom from the soldierfish (Gymnapistes marmoratus). Toxicon. 36(7): 973–983.

Quintero-Hernández V, Jiménez-Vargas J, Gurrola G, Valdivia H, Possani L (2013) Scorpion venom components that affect ion-channels function. Tox¬icon. 76: 328–342.

Omran MA, Abdel-Rahman MS, Nabil Z 91992) Effect of scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus (H and E) venom on rat's heart rate and blood pressure. Toxicol Lett. 61(1): 111–121.

Bucaretchi F, Collares E (1996) Effect of Phoneutria nigriventer spider ven¬om on gastric emptying in rats. Braz J Med Biol Res. 29(2): 205–211.

El-Alfy AT, Ahmed AA, Fatani AJ, Kader F (2008) Amelioration of the cardiovascular manifestations of the yellow scorpion Leiurus quinquestri-atus envenomation in rats by red grape seeds proanthocyanidins. Toxicon. 51 (3): 321–333.

Borchani L, Sassi A, Gharsa HB, Safra I, Shahbazzadeh D, Lasfar ZB, El Ayeb M (2013) The pathological effects of Heminecrolysin, a dermonecrotic toxin from Hemiscorpius lepturus scorpion venom are mediated through its lysophospholipase D activity. 68: 30–39.

Díaz-García A, Ruiz-Fuentes JL, Yglesias-Rivera A, Rodríguez-Sánchez H, Gar¬lobo YR, Martinez OF, Fraga Castro JA (2015) Enzymatic analysis of ven¬om from Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus. J Venom Res. 22(6): 11–18.

Gueron M, Ilia R, Sofer S (1992) The cardiovascular system after scorpion envenomation. A review. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 30(2): 245–258.

Armstrong EP, Bakall M, Skrepnek GH, Boyer LV (2013) Is scorpion antivenom cost-effective as marketed in the United States?. Toxicon. 76: 394–398.

Gupta V (2006) Prazosin: a pharmacological antidote for scorpion envenomation. J Trop Pediatr. 52(2): 150–151.

Published
2018-03-18
How to Cite
1.
Pourkhalili K, Fatemikia H, Kim E, Mashayekhy NR, Dounighi NM, Hajivandi A, Hassan Y, Seyedian R. Hemodynamic Changes in Experimentally Envenomed Anaesthetized Rats by Intravenous Injection of Hemiscorpius lepturus Venom. jad. 12(1):31-0.
Section
Original Article