Domiciliary Cockroaches as Carriers of Human Intestinal Parasites in Lagos Metropolis, Southwest Nigeria: Implications for Public Health
AbstractBackground: Domiciliary cockroaches are obnoxious pests of significant medical importance. We investigated the prevalence of human intestinal parasites in cockroaches and its attendant public health importance.Methods: Overall, 749 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana, 509, Blattella germanica, 240) caught by trapping from 120 households comprising 3 different housing types in Somolu, Lagos metropolis, southwest Nigeria, in 2015 were screened for human intestinal parasites using standard parasitological techniques.Results: The prevalence of human intestinal parasites in cockroaches was 96.4%. There was no statistically significant difference (P> 0.05) in parasite prevalences between P. americana (95.7%) and B. germanica (97.9%). Parasite species identified and their prevalence were as follows: Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (44.1%), E. coli (37.8%), Giardia lamblia (18.7%), Cryptosporidium sp. (13.8%), Ascaris lumbricoides (61.3%), Trichuris trichiura (55.8%), hookworms (11.6%), Strongyloides stercoralis (11.7%), Taenia/Echinococcus spp. (10.5%), Enterobius vermicularis (17.2%) and Hymenolepis nana (11.6%). Parasite prevalence and burdens varied with housing type; the prevalence was significantly higher statistically (P< 0.05) in cockroaches from low-cost bungalow, LCB (100%) and low-cost, 2-storey, LC2-S (100%) houses than in medium-cost flats, MCF (81.3%). Parasite burdens were also significantly higher statistically (P< 0.05) in cockroaches from LCB or LC2-S than in cockroaches from MCF. Parasite prevalences between cockroach gut and body surfaces were not statistically significant (P> 0.05) but mean parasite burdens in gut were significantly higher statistically (P< 0.05) than on body surfaces.Conclusion: Cockroaches types carry transmissive stages of human intestinal parasites and may act as reservoirs and potential mechanical vectors for disease transmission.
Cochran DG (1999) Cockroaches: Their
Biology, Distribution and Control. WHO/ CDS/CPC/WHOPES/99.3. World Health Organization, Geneva.
Kramer RD, Brenner RJ (2009) Cock-roach¬es (Blattaria). In: Mullen GR, Durden LA (Eds) Medical and Veteri-nary Ento¬mology, 2nd Edition. Aca-demic Press/ Elsevier Inc., New York, USA, pp. 41–55.
Beccaloni GW (2014) Cockroach Species File Online. Version 5.0/5.0. World Wide Web electronic publication. Available at: http://Cockroach.SpeciesFile.org
Rust MK, Reierson DA (2007) Cock¬roaches. Integrated Pest Management for Home Gardeners and Landscape Profession-als. Pest Notes, Publication 7467, Uni-versity of California Agricul¬ture and Natural Resources, California, USA.
Anikwe JC, Adetoro FA, Anogwih JA, Makanjuola WA, Kemabonta KA, Akinwande KL (2014) Laboratory and field evaluation of an Indoxacarb Gel bait against two cockroach species (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae, Blattidae) in Lagos, Nigeria. J Econ Entomol. 107 (4): 1639–1642.
Hamu H, Debalke S, Zemene E, Birlie B, Mekonnen Z, Yewhalaw D (2014) Iso-lation of intestinal parasites of public health importance from cockroaches (Blattella germanica) in Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia. J Parasitol Res. p. 5.
Hashemi-Aghdam SS, Oshaghi MA (2015) A checklist of Iranian cock¬roaches (Blat-todea) with description of Polyphaga sp. as a new species in Iran. J Arthro-pod Borne Dis. 9: 161–175.
Nazari M, Alipourian Motlagh B, Nasiri-an H (2016) Toxicity of cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos against German cock-roach [Blattella germanica (Blattaria: Blat¬telli¬dae)] strains from Hamadan, Iran. Pak J Biol Sci. 19: 259–264.
Jeong KY, Son M, Lee JH, Hong CS, Park
JW (2015) Allergenic characteri¬zation of a novel allergen, homologous to chymotrypsin, from German cock-roach. Al¬lergy, Asthma and Immunol Res. 7(3): 283–289.
Rabito, FA, Carlson JC, He H, Werth-mann D, Schal C (2017) A single in-tervention for cockroach control re-duc¬es cockroach exposure and asthma mor¬bidity in children. J Allergy Clin Immu¬nol. 140(2): 565–570.
Salehzadeh A, Tavacol P, Mahjub H (2007) Bacterial, fungal and parasitic contam-ination of cockroaches in public hospi-tals of Hamadan, Iran. J Vector Borne Dis. 44: 105–110.
Kinfu A, Erko B (2008) Cockroaches as carriers of human intestinal parasites in two localities in Ethiopia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 102: 1143–1147.
Isaac C, Orue PO, Iyamu MI, Ehiaghe JI, Isaac O (2014) Comparative analysis of pathogenic organisms in cockroach-es from different community settings in Edo State, Nigeria. Korean J Parasi-tol. 52: 177–181.
Sayyad S, Vahabi A, Vahabi B, Sayyadi M, Sahne SH (2016) Investigation of bacteriological infections of the Amer¬ican cockroaches in Paveh City, Ker-man¬shah Province. Mater Sociomed. 28(1): 17–20.
Yones DA, Galal LA, Abdallah AM, Za-ghlol KS (2015) Effect of enteric para-sitic infection on serum trace elements and nutritional status in upper Egyp-tian children. Trop Parasitol. 5(1): 29–35.
Sinniah B, Hassan AKR, Sabaridah I, Soe MM, Ibrahim Z, Ali O (2014) Prevalence of intestinal parasitic in-fec¬tions among communities living in dif¬ferent habitats and its comparison with one hun¬dred and one studies con-ducted over the past 42 years (1970 to 2013) in Malaysia. Trop Biomed. 31(2): 190–206.
Ahmad A, Ghosh A, Schal C, Zurek L
(2011) Insects in confined swine oper-a¬tions carry a large antibiotic resistant and potentially virulent enterococcal com-munity. BMC Microbiol. 11: 23.
Federal Republic of Nigeria (2010) 2006 Population and Housing Census: Pri-ority Table Volume III: Population Distribution by Sex, State, LGA and Senatorial District. National Popula-tion Commission, Abuja, Nigeria.
Burgess NRH (1993) Cockroaches (Blat-taria). In: Lane RP, Crosskey RW (Eds) Medical Insects and Arachnids. Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 473–482.
WHO (1991) Basic Laboratory Methods in Medical Parasitology. World Health Organization, Geneva.
Adegbola RA, Demba E, DeVeer G, Todd J (1994) Cryptosporidium infec¬tion in Gam¬bian children less than five years of age. J Trop Med Hyg. 97: 103–107.
WHO (1994) Bench Aids for the Diag-no¬sis of Intestinal Parasites. World Health Organization, Geneva.
R Core Team (2015) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical compu-ting, Vienna, Austria.
Bala AY, Sule H (2012) Vectorial poten-tial of cockroaches in transmitting par¬asites of medical importance in Arkilla, Sokoto, Nigeria. Niger J Basic Appl Sci. 20(2): 111–115.
Etim SE, Okon OE, Akpan PA, Ukpong GI, Oku EE (2013) Prevalence of cock-roaches (Periplanata americana) in house¬holds in Calabar: Public health im¬plications. J Public Health Epidemi-ol. 5(3): 149–152.
Chamavit P, Sahaisook P, Niamnuy N (2011) The majority of cockroaches from the Samutprakarn Province of Thailand are carriers of parasitic or-gan¬isms. EXCLI J. 10: 218–222.
Pullan RL, Smith JL, Jasrasaria R, Booker SJ (2014) Global numbers of infection and disease burden of soil transmitted helminth infections in 2010. Parasit Vec¬tors. 7: 37.
Henriquez-Camacho C, Gotuzzo E, Eche¬varria J, White Jr AC, Terashima A, Samalvides F, Pérez-Molina JA, Plana MN (2016) Ivermectin versus al¬bend¬azole or thiabendazole for Stron¬gy¬loi¬des stercoralis infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 1: CD007745.
Osman M, El Safadi D, Cian A, Benam-rouz S, Nourrisson C, Poirier P, Perei-ra B, Razakandrainibe R, Pinon A, Lambert C, Wawrzyniak I, Dabboussi F, Delbac F, Favennec L, Hamze M, Viscogliosi E, Certad G (2016) Prevalence and risk factors for intestinal protozoan in-fections with Cryptosporidium, Giar-dia, Blasto¬cystis and Dientamoeba among schoolchil¬dren in Tripoli, Leb-anon. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 10(3): e0004496.
Skappak C, Akierman S, Belga S, No¬vak K, Chadee K, Urbanski SJ, Church D, Beck PL (2014) Invasive amoebia¬sis: a review of Enta¬moeba infections high-lighted with case reports. Can J Gas-troen¬terol Hepatol. 28: 355–359.
WHO (2016) Preventable epilepsy: Tae-nia solium infection burdens econo-mies, societies and individuals: A ra-tionale for investment and action. WHO/HTM/ NTD/NZD/2016.1. World Health Organization, Geneva.
McManus DP, Gray DJ, Zhang W, Yang Y (2012) Diagnosis, treatment, and man¬agement of echinococcosis. BMJ. p. 344.
Ajero CMU, Ukaga CN, Ebirim C (2011) The role of cockroaches (Blatta orientalis and Periplaneta americana) in me¬chanical transmission of para-sites in house¬holds in Owerri, South East Nigeria. Niger J Parasitol. 32(2): 153–156.
El-Sherbini GT, El-Sherbini ET (2011) The role of cockroaches and flies in me¬chanical transmission of medical im¬portant parasites. J Entomol Nema-tol.
WHO (2004) Integrated guide to sani-tary parasitology. Regional Office for the East¬ern Mediterranean. WHO Re-gional Centre for Environmental Health Ac¬tivities, Document WHO-EM/CEH/121/ E. Amman, Jordan.
Al-Mayali HH, Al-yaqoobi MSM (2010) Parasites of cockroach, P. americana (L), in Al-Diwaniya Province, Iraq. J Thi-Qar Sci. 2(3): 93–104.
Menasria T, Tine S, Mahcene D, Be-nammar L, Megri R, Boukoucha M, Debabza M (2015) External bacterial flora and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Staphylococcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. isolated from two household cockroaches, Blattella ger-manica and Blatta orientalis. Biomed Environ Sci. 28 (4): 316–320.
Lau YL, Anthony C, Fakhrurrazi SA, Ib-rahim J, Ithoi R, Mahmud R (2013) Real-time PCR assay in differentiating Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii in-fections in Orang Asli settlements in Malaysia. Parasit Vectors. 6(1): 250.
Jimenez JA, Rodriguez S, Moyano LM, Castillo Y, Garcia HH (2010) Differen-tiating Taenia eggs found in human stools - does Ziehl Neelsen staining help? Trop Med Int Health. 15(9): 1077–1081.
Salant H, Abbasi I, Hamburger J (2012) The development of a loop-mediated iso-thermal amplification method (LAMP) for Echinococcus granulosus coprode-tection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 87: 883–887.