Control of American Cockroach (Periplaneta americana) in Municipal Sewage Disposal System, Central Iran

  • Ali Reza Zahraei-Ramazani Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Abedin Saghafipour Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran
  • Hassan Vatandoost Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Department of Chemical Pollutants and Pesticides, Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran Uni-versity of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Keywords: Periplaneta americana, Control products, Sewage system, Iran

Abstract

Background: Cockroaches consists of 4000 species, of which 40 species are serious domestic pests. They have involved the mechanical transmission of various pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and protozoans to humans. This study aimed to determine different control methods of P. americana in sewage system of Esfahan City, central Iran using different insecticides recommended by WHO. Methods: Totally, 164 manholes with at least more than three cockroaches were selected until 2017 for this study. The species of cockroaches were identified; the adults and nymphs were counted and recorded. Each sewer shaft was assigned to one treatment method in an ascending order of number of cockroaches counted, coding the treatment method with paint on the lower part of the wall near the manhole cover. The manhole shafts were then inspected at 1 and 5 months’ post-treatment. Data analyzed by statistical methods.Results: Almost all of the products (Excluding boric acid with bait formulation) resulted in appropriate control with­in one month of application. The appropriate products for chemical control of cockroaches were the chlorpyrifos 5% Emulsifiable Concentrate (EC), diazinon 5% (EC), diazinon 0.05% (EC) and cypermethrin 5% Fog. These pesticides achieved an optimal reduction of population providing more than 90% control of cockroaches for five consecutive months. Conclusion: The emulsifiable concentrates and fog formulations in the control were more successful compared to other methods and this was penetration deep into the hiding places of cockroaches.

References

Fakoorziba MR, Eghbal assanzadehJ,Moemenbellah-Fard MD (2010) Cock-roaches as potential vectors of the pathogenic bacteria found in nosocomial infections. Ann Trop Med Parasi-tol. 104: 521–528.

Salehzadeh A, Tavacol P, Mahjub H (2007) Bacterial, fungal and parasitic contam-ination of cockroaches in public hospi-tals of Hamadan. J Vector Borne Dis. 44: 105–110.

Hashemi-Aghdam SS, Oshaghi MA (2015) A checklist of Iranian cock¬roaches (Blat-todea) with description of Polyphaga sp. as a new species in Iran. J Arthro-pod Borne Dis. 9: 161–175.

Wannigama DL, Dwivedi R, Zahraei-Ram¬azani A (2014) Prevalence and an-ti¬bi¬otic resistance of gram-negative pathogenic bacteria species isolated from Peri¬planeta americana and Blat¬tella german¬ica in Varanasi, India. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 8: 10–20.

Bonnefoy X, Kampen H, Sweeney K (2008) Public health significance of urban pests. World Health Organization. Regional office for Europe, Scherfigsvej 8. DK-2100 Copen-hagon, Denmark.

Hanafi-Bojd A, Sadaghiani S (2001) Iran Cockroaches. 1st ed. Tehran University of Medical Sciences Publishers, Teh-ran.

Bell WJ, Roth LM, Nalepa CA (2007) Cockroaches: ecology, behavior, and natural history, Microbes: Unseen in-fluence: The Johns Hopkins University Publishers, Baltimore. pp. 76–88.

Strong CA, Valles SM, Koehler PG, Brenner RJ (2000) Residual efficacy of Blatticides ap-plied to surfaces contam¬inated with German Cockroach (Dicty¬optera: Blat-tellidae) feces. Fla Ento¬mol. 83: 438–445.

Service MW (1980) A guide to medical entomology. 1st ed. Tehran: Tehran Uni¬versity of Medical Sciences Pub-lishers, pp. 110.

Ladonni H (1993) Sensitivity of Blattella germanica to different insecticides in different hospitals in Tehran, Iran. J En¬tomol Soc. 13: 23–28.

Glazer I, Samish M, Delpino F (2005) Applications for the control of pests of humans and animals .CAB Internation-al eds. Grewal, R.U, Ehlers and D, I, Shapiro-ilan.

Pridgeon JW, Appel AG, Moar WJ, Liu N (2002) Variability of resistance mecha-nisms in pyrethroid resistant German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattelli-dae). Pestic Biochem Physiol. 73: 149–156.

Ladonni H (2001) Evaluation of three methods for detecting permethrin re-sistance in adult and nymph of Blattel-la germanica (Dictyoptera: Blattelli-dae). J Econ Entomol. 94: 694–697.

World Health Organization (2006) Pesticide evaluation scheme (WHOPES) Pes¬ticides and their application: for the con¬trol of vectors and pests of public health importance. Department of Con-trol of Neglected Tropical Diseases WHO 6th ed.

Buczkowski G, Kopanic R, Schal C (2001) Transfer of ingested insecticides among cockroaches: effects of active ingredi-ent, bait formulation, and assay procedures. J Econ Entomol. 94: 1229–1236.

Varesi H, Beikmohammadi H, Ghanbari S (2010) Com¬passion of economic dam¬ages of Agricultural drought in Naein Citywith other townships in Es¬fahan (for 1378–1382 years). Geogra¬phy Environ Plan J. 21: 21–44.

Bueno-Marí R, Bernués-Bañeres A, Pe-ris-Felipo FJ, Moreno-Marí J, Jimé-nez-Peydró R (2013) American cock-roach control assays in the municipal sewer¬age system of Valencia (Spain). Polish J Entomol. 82: 143–150.

Vithilingam I, Jeffery J, Oothuman P, Razak ARA, Sulaiman A (1997) Cock-roaches from urban human dwellings: isolation of bacterial pathogens and con¬trol. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 28: 218–222.

Dehghani R, Atharizadeh M, Moosavi SGh, Azadi S, Rashidi M, Paksa A (2014) Analysis of cockroach fauna and frequency in human residential habitats of north of Esfahan, Iran. Int Arch Health Sci. 1: 25–29.

Ross MH, Cochran DG (1992) Strain dif-ferences in the response of German cock-roaches to emulsifiable concen¬trates (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). J Eco Entomol. 85: 1201–1208.

Jaramillo J, Muchugu E, Vega FE, Davis A, Borgemeister C, Chabi-Olaye A (2011) Some like it hot: the influence and implications of climate change on coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and coffee production in East Africa. PLoS ONE. 6(9): 1–14.

Christensen C (1991) Cockroach baits. Pest Control Tech. 19: 45–51.

Lee CY, Lee LC (2000) Influence of sanitary conditions on the field performance of chlorpyrifos-based baits against American cockroaches, Peri¬planeta americana (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae). J Vector Ecol. 25: 218–221.

Published
2018-06-13
How to Cite
1.
Zahraei-Ramazani AR, Saghafipour A, Vatandoost H. Control of American Cockroach (Periplaneta americana) in Municipal Sewage Disposal System, Central Iran. jad. 12(2):172-9.
Section
Original Article