Effect of Chlorine and Temperature on Larvicidal Activity of Cuban Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates
AbstractBackground: The efficacy of biolarvicides may be influenced by species of mosquito, larval age and density, temperature, water quality, bacterial formulation, and others. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of temperature and chlorine on larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cuban isolates against Aedes aegypti. Methods: The influence of temperature (25, 30, 35 °C) and chlorine (2.25mg/L) on the larvicidal activity of eleven B. thuringiensis Cuban isolates (collected between 2007 and 2009) were tested under laboratory conditions following WHO protocols. Bioassay data were analyzed by Probit program. The effect of chlorine and temperature (25, 30, 35 and 40 °C) on the Cry and Cyt proteins of these isolates was determined by SDS-PAGE polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results: The pathogenicity of the isolates U81, X48 was affected at 35 °C. However, A21, A51, L910, and R89 isolates increase their entomopathogen activity at 35 °C. No differences were observed in toxicity of M29, R84, R85 and R87 isolates at different temperatures. The Cry 4, Cry 10 and Cry 11 proteins were reduced in A21, X48, R85 isolates at 35 and 40 °C. The Cyt proteins were reduced at 35 and 40 °C in A21, X48, R85, and A51 isolates. In L910 and R84 isolates, the Cyt toxin was degraded only at 40 °C. In chlorinated water, the lethal concentrations 50 and 90 in A21, A51, M29, R84, U81, and X48 isolates were increase. Conclusion: A21, A51, L910, R85, and X48 isolates have a strong larvicidal activity for the treatment of Ae. aegypti breeding’s sites exposed to high temperature and chlorine.
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