Morphological and Genotypic Variations among the Species of the Subgenus Adlerius (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotomus) in Iran
AbstractBackground: Female sand flies of subgenus Adlerius are considered as probable vectors of visceral leishmaniasis in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the morphological and genotypic variations in the populations of this subgenus in the country.Methods: Sand flies collected using sticky traps from 17 provinces during 2008–2010. The morphometric measurements were conducted with an Ocular Micrometer. Data was analyzed by SPSS. The Cytb gene was used to estimate population genetic diversity and identify the female specimens. UPGMA phenetic tree was used for DNA haplotypes of Cytb gene.Results: Six species of subgenus Adlerius identified from which one species, P. (Adlerius) kabulensis, is new record. The identification key is provided for males. Results revealed the molecular systematic in the species of subgenus Adlerius and determine the relationship of three females of P. comatus, P. balcanicus and P. halepensis.Conclusion: The positions of three females and the males in the UPGMA tree are correct and the similarities among them confirm our results. The branches of each species are not genetically distinct which justify the overlapping morphological characters among them. Molecular sequencing of Cytb-mtDNA haplotypes can be used for female identification for different species of subgenus Adlerius in Iran.
Ardehali SV, Rezaei HR, Nadim A (1995) Leishmania Parasite and Leishmani- asis. Academic Press Center, Tehran, Iran, pp. 208 (in Persian).
Artemiev MM (1973) Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) of Af- ghanistan. Malaria and Leishmania In- stitute, Afghanistan, p. 174.
Artemiev MM (1980) A review of sand flies of the subgenus Adlerius (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae). Zo- ologicheskiy Zh. 59: 1177–1192 (Rus- sian).
Artemiev MM, Neronov V (1984) Distribu- tion and ecology of sand flies of the world (genus Phlebotomus). Institute of Evolution, Morphology and Animal Ecology, Moscow, pp. 1–208.
Esseghir S, Ready RD, Ben-Ismail R (2000) Speciation of Phlebotomus sand flies of the subgenus Larroussius coincided with the late Miocene-Pliocene aridifi- cation of the Mediterranean subregion. Biol J Linnean Soc. 70: 189–219.
Giorgobiani E, Lawyer PG, Babuadze G, Dolidze N, Jochim RC, Tskhvaradze L, Kikaleishvili K, Kamhawi S (2012) Incrimination of Phlebotomus kande- lakii and Phlebotomus balcanicus as vectors of eishmania infantum in Tbi- lisi, Georgia. PLoS Neglected Trop Dis. 6: e1609.
Jacobson RL, Eisenberger CL, Svobodova M, Baneth G, Sztern J, Carvalho J, Nasereddin A, El-Fari M, Shalom U, Volf P, Votypka J, Dedet JP, Pratlong F, Schonian G, Schnur LF, Jaffe CL, Warburg A (2003) Outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northern Israel. J Infect Dis. 188: 1065–1073.
Killick-Kendrick R (1999) The biology and control of Phlebotominae sand flies. Med Vet Entomol. 17: 279–289.
Legendre P, Legendre L (1998) Numerical Ecology. Second English Edition. De- velopments in Environmental Modelling 20. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 1–853.
Léger N, Pesson B (1987) Sur la taxonomie et la repartition géographique de Phle- botomus (Adlerius) chinensis s.l. et de P. (Larroussius) major s.l. (Psychodi- dae: Diptera). Bull Soc Path Exot. 80:252–260.
Lewis DJ (1982) A taxonomic review of the genus Phlebotomus (Diptera: Psychodi- dae). Bull Br Mus Nat Hist Entomol.45: 121–209.
Moin-Vaziri V, Depaquit J, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Oshaghi MA, Derakhshandeh- Peykar P, Ferte H, Kaltenbach M, Bargues MD, Leger N, Nadim A (2007) Interaspecific variation within Phlebotomous sergenti Parrot, 1917 (Diptera: Psychodidae) based on mtDNA sequences in Islamic Republic of Iran. Acta Trop. 102: 29–37.
Munstermann LE, Conn JE (1997) Systematics of mosquito disease vectors (Diptera: Culicidae): Impact of molecular biolo- gy and cladistic analysis. Annu Rev Entomol. 42: 351–369.
Parvizi P, Ready PD (2006) Molecular in- vestigation of the population differen- tiation of Phlebotomus papatasi, im- portant vector of Leishmania major, in different habitats and regions of Iran. Iranian Biomed J. 10: 69–77.
Rispail P, Leger N (1998) Numerical taxon- omy of old world Phlebotominae (Dip- tera: Psychodidae). 1. Considerations of morphological characters in the Ge- nus Phlebotomus Rondani and Berte 1840. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 93:773–785.
Sadlova J, Hajmova M, Volf P (2003) Phle- botomus (Adlerius) halepensis vector competence for Leishmania major and L. tropica. Med Vet Entomol. 17: 244–250.
Secombe AK, Ready PD, Huddleston LM (1993) A catalogue of the old world Phlebotominae sand flies (Diptera: Psy- chodidae, Phlebotominae). Department of Entomology the Natural History Museum. Occasional Papers on Sys- tematics Entolomology. 8: 1–57.
Seyedi-Rashti MA, Nadim A (1992) The ge- nus Phlebotomus (Diptera: Psychodi- dae: Phlebotominae) of the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Iranian J Publ Health. 21: 11–50.
Statistics Culture of Iran, 1990. Annual Re- port on the Statics of the Country. Vol.6.
Strunk WJ, White EB (1979) The elements of style. (3rd Ed). New York: Macmillan, (Chapter 4).
Svobodova M, Volf P, Votýpka J (2006a) Experimental transmission of Leishma- nia tropica to hyraxes (Procavia capensis) by the bite of Phlebotomus ara bicus. Microbes Infect. 8: 1691–1694.
Svobodova M, Votypka J, Peckova J, Dvorak V, Nasereddin A, Baneth G, Sztern J, Kravchenko V, Orr A, Meir D, Schnur LF, Volf P, Warburg A (2006b) Dis- tinct transmission cycles of Leishmania tropica in 2 adjacent foci, Northern Is- rael. Emerg Infect Dis. 12: 1860–1868.
Theodor O, Mesghali A (1964) On the Phle- botominae of Iran. J Med Entomol. 1:285–300.
Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Plewniak F, Jeanmougin F, Higgins DG (1997) The CLUSTAL_X windows interface: flexi- ble strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucl Acids Res. 25: 4876–4882.
Volf P, Myskova J (2007) Sand flies and Leishmania: species versus permissive vectors. Trends Parasitol. 23: 91–92.
World Health Organization (2010) Control of the Leishmaniases. WHO Technical Report Series, 949, Report of a meeting of the WHO Export Committee on the control of leishmaniases, 22–26 March 2010, Geneva, p. 186.
Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR ( 2012) Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Iran and their role on Leishmania transmis- sion. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 6: 1–17.
Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Javadian E (1997) Studies on sandflies in a hyperendemic area of zoonotic cutaneous leishmani- asis in Iran. Indian J Med Res. 105:61–66.
Zahraei-Ramazani AR, Kumar D, Yaghoobi- Ershadi MR, Naghian A, Jafari R, Shirzadi MR, Abdoli H, Soleimani H, Shareghi N, Ghanei M, Arandian MH, Hanafi-Bojd AA (2013) Sand flies of the subgenus Adlerius (Diptera: Psy- chodidae) in an endemic focus of vis- ceral leishmaniasis and introduction of Phlebotomus (Adlerius) comatus as a new record for Iran. J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 7: 1–7.
Zhang LM, Leng YJ (1997) Eighty-year re- search of Phlebotomine sandflies (Dip- tera: Psychodidae) in China (1915–1995). II. Phlebotomine vectors of leishmaniasis in China. Parasite. 4:299–306.
|Issue||Vol 9 No 1 (2015)|
|Phlebotomine sand flies subgenus Adlerius P. comatus P. kabulensis Mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome b gene|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|