Prevalence and Spatial Distribution of Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius, Infestation in Southwest of Iran: GIS Approach

  • Mona Sharififard Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
  • Ismaeil Alizadeh Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran, Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Elham Jahanifard Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
  • Amal Saki-Malehi Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
Bed bug; Infestation; Prevalence; Distribution; Cimex lectularius


Background: The common bed bug, a nocturnal bloodsucking insect, is known as a human parasite and public health problem in the world. The prevalence and geographical dispersion of bed bug in Ahvaz City, southwest of Iran was measured.Methods: Spatial distribution of Cimex lectularius was determined by surveying 520 houses in 62 areas of Ahvaz City in 2017. Some information like as infested points, the concern level of the residents and allergic reaction to the insect bite were registered in a form using the secondhand instrument.Results: According to the spatial distribution map, of 62 areas, 27 of them are infested with bed bugs. Infestation is scattered throughout the city, but its focus is on the east of the Karun River. The most bed bug infestation was in Asi­abad followed by Manbaab areas. Prevalence of bed bug infestation estimated 9.61% in Ahvaz city. It was 5.4% and 11.6% in apartments and single houses, respectively. The lowest and highest infestation rates based on its source were 1.35% and 9.03% in wallpaper and cracks and crevices, respectively. Bedroom and sitting room were the main harbor­ages for bed bug in the houses. The majority of residents who had bitten by a bed bug showed various allergic reactions like redness skin, papules, vesicles, pustules and blisters. Most of the people in the infested houses (62%) were very concern about bed bug infestation.Conclusion: Public education and increasing the knowledge of people can lead to successful management, prevention and elimination of this nuisance pest.


1. Reinhardt K, Siva-Jothy MT (2007) Biol-ogy of the bed bugs (Cimicidae). Annu Rev En¬tomol. 52: 351–374.
2. Delaunay P, Blanc V, Del Giudice P, Levy-Bencheton A, Chosidow O, Marty P, Brou¬qui P (2011) Bedbugs and infectious diseases. Clin Infect Dis. 52(2): 200–210.
3. Gerardo EM (2014) Increasing awareness of and education about bed bugs (Cimex lec-tularius) as a public health issue in Hawai. [PhD dissertation]. [University of Hawaii at Manoa. Honolulu.
4. Susser SR, Perron S, Fournier M, Jacques L, Denis G, Tessier F, Roberge P (2012) Men¬tal health effects from urban bed bug in¬festation (Cimex lectularius L.): a cross-sec¬tional study. BMJ open. 2(5): e000838.
5. Romero A, Potter MF, Potter DA, Haynes KF (2007) Insecticide resistance in the bed bug: a factor in the pest’s sudden resurgence?. J Med Entomol. 44(2): 175–178.
6. Berenger JM, Delaunay P, Pagès F (2008) Bed bugs (Heteroptera, Cimicidae): biting again. Med Trop 68(6): 563–567.
7. Doggett SL, Geary MJ, Russell RC (2004) The resurgence of bed bugs in Australia: with notes on their ecology and control. Environ Health. 4(2): 30–36.
8. Giorda F, Guardone L, Mancini M, Accorsi A, Macchioni F, Mignone W (2013) Cas-es of bed bug (Cimex lectularius) infesta-tions in Northwest Italy. Vet Ital. 49(4): 335–340.
9. Dehghani R, Asadi MA, Ahmadi Froshani M (2000) The study of bed bug infesta-tion in homes of some villages in west of Kashan County. Fayz. 14: 71–76.
10. Dehghani R, Hashemi A, Takhtfiroozeh SM, Chimehi E (2016) Bed bug (Cimex lec¬tularis) outbreak: A cross-sectional study in Polour, Iran. Iran J Dermatol. 19(1): 16–20.
11. Motevali Haghi SF, Behbodi M, Hajati H, Shafaroudi MM (2014) Prevalence of bed bug (Cimex lectularius) in human settle-ment area of Bahnamir, Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Dis. 4: S786–789.
12. Shahraki Gh, Rayegan Shirazi AR, Fara-roei M (2000) Prevalence of bed bug and its biting in student dormitories. JYUMS. 19: 25–33.
13. Daniel M, Kolář J, Zeman P (2004) GIS tools for tick and tick-borne disease oc-cur¬rence Parasitology. 129(S1): S329–352.
14. Soleimani Z, Goudarzi G, Naddafi K, Sadeghinejad B, Latifi SM, Parhizgari N, Parhizgari N, Alavi N, Babaei AA, Akhoond MR, Khaefi M, Dehdari Rad H, Moham¬madi MJ, Shahsavani A (2013) Determination of culturable indoor air-borne fungi during nor¬mal and dust event days in Ahvaz, Iran. Aero¬biologia. 29(2): 279–290.
15. Tahbaz M (2018) Microclimate Observa-tion by Outdoor Thermal Indices (Case Study of Five Climates). IUST. 28(1): 49–70.
16. Furman DP, Catts EP (1982) Manual of med¬ical entomology. Cambridge: Cam-bridge University Press. London, p. 207.
17. Davies TG, Field LM, Williamson MS (2012) The re‐emergence of the bed bug as a nuisance pest: implications of re-sistance to the pyrethroid insecticides. Med Vet En¬tomol. 26(3): 241–54.
18. Alizadeh I, Sharififard M, Jahanifard E, Saki Malehi A (2019) A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Bed Bug Infestation (Cimex lectularius) as a Public Health Insect in Iran (1995–2019). Jundishapur J Health Sci. 11(4): 1–6.
19. Wu Y, Tracy DM, Barbarin AM, Barbu CM, Levy MZ (2014) A door-to-door survey of bed bug (Cimex lectularius) infestations in row homes in Philadelphia, Penn¬sylvania. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 91(1): 206–210.
20. Omudu EA, Kuse CN (2010) Bedbug in-festation and its control practices in Gbajim¬ba: a rural settlement in Benue state, Nigeria. J Vector Borne Dis. 47(4): 222–227.
21. Senabulya GW, Alege JB, Atuhairwe C, Taremwa IM (2019) Prevalence and as-soci¬ated factors of bed bug infestations (Cimex lectularius) in lubaga division, Kam¬pala cap¬ital city, Uganda. Prev Med Com¬mun Health. 2: 1–5.
22. Levy Bencheton A, Berenger JM, Del Giudice P, Delaunay P, Pages F, Morand JJ (2011) Resurgence of bedbugs in south¬ern France: a local problem or the tip of the ice¬berg?. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 25(5): 599–602.
23. Cooper R (2006) Bed bugs-still more questions than answers: A need for research and public awareness. Am Entomol. 52(2): 111–112.
24. Boase CJ (2004) Bedbugs: reclaiming our cities. Biologists. 51(1): 9–12.
25. Emmanuel OI, Cyprian A, Agbo OE (2014) A survey of bedbug (Cimex lectular¬ius) in¬festation in some homes and hostels in Gboko, Benue State, Nigeria. Psyche. 76 (1): 28–44.
26. Richards L, Boase CJ, Gezan S, Cam¬eron MM (2009) Are bed bug infestations on the increase within Greater London? J En¬vi¬ron Health Res. 51: 3–11.
27. El-Azazy OM, Al-Behbehani B, Abdou NM (2013) Increasing bedbug, Cimex lec-tu¬lar¬ius infestations in Kuwait. J Egypt Soc Par¬asitol. 43(2): 415–418.
28. How YF, Lee CY (2010) Survey of bed bugs in infested premises in Malaysia and Singapore. J Vector Ecol. 35(1): 89–94.
29. Hwang SW, Svoboda TJ, De Jong IJ, Kabasele KJ, Gogosis E (2005) Bed bug in¬festations in an urban environment. Emerg Infect Dis. 11: 533–588.
30. Wang C, Singh N, Zha C, Cooper R (2016) Bed bugs: Prevalence in low-income com¬munities, resident’s reactions, and im¬ple¬mentation of a low-cost inspection proto¬col. J Med Entomol. 53(3): 639–646.
31. Seidel C, Reinhardt K (2013) Bugging fore¬cast: unknown, disliked, occasionally in¬ti¬mate. Bed bugs in Germany meet un-pre¬pared people. PLoS One. 8(1): e51083.
32. Romero A, Sutherland AM, Gouge DH, Spafford H, Nair S, Lewis V, Choe DH, Li S, Young D (2017) Pest management strat¬egies for bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimi-cidae) in mul¬tiunit housing: A literature re¬view on field studies. J Integr Pest Manag. 8(1): 1–10.
33. Ralph N, Jones HE, Thorpe LE (2013) Self-reported bed bug infestation among New York City residents: prevalence and risk fac¬tors. J Environ Health. 76(1): 38–45.
34. Alizadeh I, Jahanifard E, Sharififard M (2017) Allergic reactions and dermatitis to common bed bug bites: A case report from Ahvaz, Southwest Iran. Iran J Der-matol. 20: 65–67.
35. Kaylor M, Wenning D, Eddy C (2015) Prev¬alence, knowledge, and concern about bed bugs. J Environ Health. 78(1): 20–24.
36. Alizadeh I, Sharififard M, Jahanifard E, Rajaei F, Mousavian G, Mehraghaei M (2018) Identification, Knowledge, and Awareness of People Regarding Public Health Nuisance Insect (Cimex lectularius) in Southwest of Iran. Jundishapur J Health Sci. 10 (3): 1–7.
37. Wang C, Saltzmann K, Chin E, Bennett GW, Gibb T (2010) Characteristics of Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), infesta¬tion and dispersal in a high-rise apartment building. J Econ Entomol. 103(1): 172–177.
How to Cite
Sharififard M, Alizadeh I, Jahanifard E, Saki-Malehi A. Prevalence and Spatial Distribution of Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius, Infestation in Southwest of Iran: GIS Approach. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 14(1):29–37.
Original Article