Molecular and Seroepidemiological Survey of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Owned Dogs (Canis familiaris) in New Foci of Rural Areas of Alborz Province, Central Part of Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study in 2017

  • Aliehsan Heidari Department of Parasitology, School of Medicine, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran
  • Mehdi Mohebali Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Center for Research of Endemic Parasites of Iran (CREPI), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Mozhgan Vahed Center for Research of Endemic Parasites of Iran (CREPI), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Kourosh Kabir Social Determinant of Health Research Center, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran
  • Zabihollah Zarei Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Behnaz Akhoundi Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Samira Elikaee Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Hojatallah Barati Center of Against Infectious Diseases, Health Depatment, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran
  • Monireh Sezavar Department of Experimental Sciences, Faculty of Allied medicine, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran
  • Hossein Keshavarz Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, Center for Research of Endemic Parasites of Iran (CREPI), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Zahra Kakooei Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Homa Hajjaran Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Keywords:
Leishmania infantum; Dog; Nested-PCR; Direct agglutination test; Iran

Abstract

Background: Mediterranean form of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic among some provinces of Iran. The pre­sent study was designed to determine the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in the owned dogs of the rural areas of Alborz Province near Tehran as the capital of Iran.Methods: This study conducted on 303 owned dogs that selected using a stratified random sampling method. The direct agglutination test (DAT) was used to determine the frequency of Vl. The spleen biopsy was taken from the serology-positive dogs for the confirmation of CVL in the suspected dogs. Nested PCR and sequencing methods were used to determine the type of Leishmania species in the dogs which were parasitological positive.Results: Overall, the DAT results of 9 dogs (2.97%, CI: 1.57–5.55) showed anti Leishmania antibodies at titers ≥ 1:320 indicating VL infection. One dog (0.33%, CI 95%: 0.06–1.85) showed clinical signs and symptoms of VL. There was a significant correlation between the positive cases of CVL and rural area (p< 0.001). The Leishmania was observed in the impression smears that were prepared from spleen biopsy of five the studied dogs. Leishmania infantum were con­firmed in all them using nested–PCR assay. The sequence analysis of all five isolates was 95% similar to L. infantum.Conclusion: This study shows that domestic cycle of L. infantum has been established in rural areas of Alborz province where located near Tehran as capital city of Iran. It is necessary to increase the awareness and monitoring of the disease periodically.

References

1. Miró G, López-Vélez R (2018) Clinical management of canine leishmaniosis versus human leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum: Putting “One Health” principles into practice. Vet Parasitol. 254: 151–159.
2. Otranto D, Dantas-Torres F (2013) The prevention of canine leishmaniasis and its impact on public health. Trends Parasitol. 29 (7): 339–345.
3. Alvar J (1994) Leishmaniasis and AIDS co-infection: the Spanish example. Parasitol Today. 10(4): 160–163.
4. Mohebali M (2013) Visceral leishmaniasis in Iran: review of the epidemiological and clinical features. Iran J Parasitol. 8(3): 348–358.
5. Heidari A, Mohebali M, Kabir K, Barati H, Soultani Y, Keshavarz H, Akhoundi B, Haj¬jaran H, Reisi H (2015) Visceral leishmaniasis in rural areas of Alborz Province of Iran and implication to health policy. Korean J Parasito. 53(4): 379–383.
6. Nourian M, Heidari A, Tajali S, Ghasemi E, Mohebali M, Heidari A (2019) Paediatric visceral leishmaniasis: a retrospective study on clinical manifestations, demographic features and laboratory findings of hospitalised cases in Iran between 2006 and 2016. Trop Doct. 49(1): 59–61.
7. Mohebali M, Hajjaran H, Hamzavi Y, Mobedi I, Arshi S, Zarei Z, Akhoundi B, Naeini KM, Avizeh R, Fakhar M (2005) Epidemiological aspects of canine visceral Leishmaniasis in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Vet Parasitol. 129(3–4): 243–251.
8. Risueño J, Ortuño M, Pérez-Cutillas P, Goyena E, Maia C, Cortes S, Campino L, Bernal LJ, Muñoz C, Arcenillas I, Martínez-Rondán FJ (2018) Epidemiological and genetic studies suggest a common Leishmania infantum transmission cycle in wildlife, dogs and humans associated to vector abundance in Southeast Spain. Vet Parasitol. 259: 61–67.
9. WHO )2010( Control of the Leishmaniasis: report of a meeting of the WHO Expert committee on the Control of Leishmania-sis. WHO, Geneva. 22–26 March 2010. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/44412.
10. França-Silva JC, da Costa RT, Siqueira AM, Machado-Coelho GL, da Costa CA, Mayrink W, Vieira EP, Costa JS, Genaro O, Nascimento E (2003) Epidemiology of canine visceral Leishmaniasis in the en-demic area of Montes Claros Municipali-ty, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Vet Parasi-tol. 111(2–3): 161–173.
11. Mohebali M, Edrissian GH, Nadim A, Hajjaran H, Akhoundi B, Hooshmand B, Zarei Z, Arshi S, Mirsamadi N, Naeini KM, Mamishi S (2006) Application of direct agglutination test (DAT) for the diagnosis and seroepidemiological studies of visceral leismaniasis in Iran. Iran J Parasitol. 1(1): 15–25.
12. Travi BL, Cordeiroda-Silva A, Dantas-Torres F, Miró G (2018) Canine visceral leishmaniasis: Diagnosis and management of the reservoir living among us. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 12(1): e0006082.
13. Akhoundi B, Mohebali M, Shojaee S, Jalali M, Kazemi B, Bandehpour M, Keshavarz H, Edrissian GH, Eslami MB, Malekafzali H, Kouchaki A (2013) Rapid detection of human and canine visceral leish¬maniasis: assessment of a latex agglutination test based on the A2 antigen from amastigote forms of Leishmania infantum. Exp Parasitol. 133(3): 307–313.
14. Gomes AH, Ferreira IM, Lima ML, Cunha EA, Garcia AS, Araújo MF, Pereira-Chioccola VL (2007) PCR identification of Leishmania in diagnosis and control of ca¬nine leishmaniasis. Vet Parasitol. 144(3–4): 234–241.
15. Akhavan AA, Mirhendi H, Khamesipour A, Alimohammadian MH, Rassi Y, Bates P, Kamhawi S, Valenzuela JG, Arandian MH, Abdoli H, Jalali-zand N (2010) Leishmania species: detection and identification by nested PCR assay from skin samples of rodent reservoirs. Exp Parasitol. 126(4): 552–556.
16. Moshfe A, Mohebali M, Edrissian G, Zarei Z, Akhoundi B, Kazemi B, Jamshidi SH, Mahmoodi M (2008) Seroepidemiological study on canine visceral leishmaniasis in Meshkin-Shahr District, Ardabil Province, northwest of Iran during 2006–2007. Iran J Parasitol. 3(3): 1–10.
17. Tesh RB (1995) Control of zoonotic vis-ceral leishmaniasis: is it time to change strategies? Am. J Trop Med Hyg. 52(3): 287–292.
18. Iranian Statistics Center (2018) Available at: https://www.amar.org.ir. Acceded 15 Feb. 2018
19. el Harith AB, Slappendel RJ, Reiter IN, van Knapen FR, De Korte P, Huigen E, Kolk AH 1998. Application of a direct agglutination test for detection of specific anti-Leish¬mania antibodies in the canine reservoir. J Clin Microbiol. 27(10): 2252–2257.
20. Mohebali M, Edrissian GH, Shirzadi MR, Akhoundi B, Hajjaran H, Zarei Z, Molaei S, Sharifi I, Mamishi S, Mahmoudvand H, Torabi V (2011) An observational study on the current distribution of visceral leishmaniasis in different geographical zones of Iran and implication to health policy. Travel Med Infect Dis. 9(2): 67–74.
21. Costa DN, Blangiardo M, Rodas LA, Nunes CM, Hiramoto RM, Tolezano JE, Bonfietti LX, Bermudi PM, Cipriano RS, Cardoso GC, Codeço CT (2018) Canine visceral leishmaniasis in Araçatuba, state of São Paulo, Brazil, and its relationship with char¬acteristics of dogs and their owners: a cross-sectional and spatial analysis using a geostatistical approach. BMC Vet Res. 14(1): 229–234.
22. Bamorovat M, Sharifi I, Mohammadi MA, Harandi MF, Mohebali M, Afshar RM, Babaei Z, Ziaali N, Aflatoonian MR (2014) Canine visceral leishmaniasis in Kerman, southeast of Iran: a seroepidemiological, histopathological and molecular study. Iran J Parasitol. 9(3): 342–349.
23. Abranches P, Silva-Pereira MC, Conceição-Silva FM, Santos-Gomes GM, Janz JG (1991) Canine Leishmaniasis: pathological and ecological factors influencing transmission of infection. J Parasitol. 77(4): 557–561.
24. Sideris V, Papadopoulou G, Dotsika E, Karagouni E (1999) Asymptomatic canine Leishmaniasis in Greater Athens area, Greece. Eur J Epidemiol. 15(3): 271–276.
25. Bokai S, Mobedi I, Edrissian GhH NA (1998) Seroepidemiological study of ca-nine visceral Leishmaniasis in Meshkin-Shahr, northwest of Iran. Arch Inst Razi. 41(6): 41–46.
26. Živičnjak T, Martinković F, Marinculić A, Mrljak V, Kučer N, Matijatko V, Mihaljević Ž, Barić-Rafaj R (2005) A seroepidemiologic survey of canine visceral Leishmaniasis among apparently healthy dogs in Croatia. Vet Parasitol. 131(1–2): 35–43.
27. Fakhar M, Rahmati B, Gohardehi S, Mohebali M, Akhoundi B, Sharif M, Mahdavi SA (2011) Molecular and seroepidemiological survey of visceral leishmaniasis among humans and domestic dogs in Mazandaran Province, north of Iran. Iran J Parasitol. 6 (4): 51–59.
28. Haddadzade HR, Fattahi R, Mohebali M, Akhoundi B, Ebrahimzade E (2013) Seroepidemiologcal investigation of visceral leishmaniasis in stray and owned dogs in Alborz Province, Central Iran using direct agglutination test. Iran J Parasitol. 8(1): 152–157.
Published
2019-08-03
How to Cite
1.
Heidari A, Mohebali M, Vahed M, Kabir K, Zarei Z, Akhoundi B, Elikaee S, Barati H, Sezavar M, Keshavarz H, Kakooei Z, Hajjaran H. Molecular and Seroepidemiological Survey of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Owned Dogs (Canis familiaris) in New Foci of Rural Areas of Alborz Province, Central Part of Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study in 2017. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 14(1):38–46.
Section
Original Article