Epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis with Emphasis on the Dynamic Activity of Sand Flies in an Important Endemic Focus of Disease in Northwestern Iran

  • Ehssan Mozaffari Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Hassan Vatandoost Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Department of Environmental Chemical Pollutants and Pesticides, Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Yavar Rassi Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Mehdi Mohebali Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Amir Ahmad Akhavan Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Department of Environmental Chemical Pollutants and Pesticides, Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Eslam Moradi-Asl School of Public Health, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran
  • Zabihola Zarei Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Alieza Zahrai-Ramazani Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Esmail Ghorbani School of Public Health, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran
Keywords:
Phlebotomus kandelakii; Phlebotomus perfilewi transcaucasicus; Visceral leishmaniasis; Iran

Abstract

Background: Leishmaniasis diseases are known to be one of the most important public health problems in World and Iran. Visceral leishmaniasis is considered to be the most serious form and transmitted by sand flies species. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamic activities of sandflies in northwestern Iran.Methods: This crass-sectional study was conducted from April to December 2018 in Meshkinshahr County, Ardabil Province. Sticky traps have been used to collect sand flies. They are stored in 70% alcohol and finally identified using valid keys. The aspects of the synoptic information were inquired from the Meshkin Shahr weather department and results analyzed for SPSS24.Results: Totally 259 sandflies were collected during study period. From collected samples 78.7% were male and 21.3% female. There were 8 different species. Phlebotomus kandelakii was the most prevalent one (30.8%). The average tem­perature, relative humidity, and average wind speed was 13.5 °C, 84%, and 2 meters per hour on the onset of sandflies’ activity, respectively. These values were 18.3 °C, 85% and 1.5 meters per hour at the peak of their activity and 16 °C, 62% and 5 meters per hour at the final stage of their activity. Sand flies had one peak in July which is strongly influ­enced by temperature and humidity conditions. Two species of Ph. kandelakii and Phlebotomus perfilewi transcaucasi­cus, had the highest activity in this endemic area.Conclusion: The results of current study will provide a guideline for control of diseases in the country. 

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Published
2019-08-03
How to Cite
1.
Mozaffari E, Vatandoost H, Rassi Y, Mohebali M, Akhavan AA, Moradi-Asl E, Zarei Z, Zahrai-Ramazani A, Ghorbani E. Epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis with Emphasis on the Dynamic Activity of Sand Flies in an Important Endemic Focus of Disease in Northwestern Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 14(1):97–105.
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Original Article