Anaplasma Infection in Ticks in Southeastern Region of Iran
AbstractBackground: Anaplasmosis and Ehrlichiosis are the most important tick-borne diseases. This study was conducted in three cities of Kerman Province in Iran to investigate the circulation of the bacteria in ticks collected from sheep.Methods: Ticks were collected from animals using Srkj forceps and transferred to the Entomology lab in cold chain. After specimen’s identification, they kept at -70 ºC. Tick DNA was extracted using Bioneers DNA extraction kits followed by Nested PCR technique to amplify ribosomal 16S rRNA gene to detect Anaplasma infection in ticks.Results: 472 sheep were examined from which 349 ticks were collected and identified in laboratory using valid keys. Tick specimens belonged to two genera and four species; Hyalomma marginatum (62.47%) was the most frequent and Hylomma asiaticum (5.73%) showed the least abundance. The infestation rate to different tick species was different in three regions of Kerman Province. Observation revealed that 24 specimens (58.3%) were positive for Anaplasma. There is a significant difference between male and female infection rate. However, there is no significant difference between these variables in each of these cities.Conclusion: This study shows high infection rates to Anaplasma in hard ticks. It is essential for health and veterinary authorities and farmers to use appropriate strategies to control ticks to reduce the infestation.
2. Friedhoff K (1997) Tick-borne dis¬eases of sheep and goats caused by Babesia, Theileria or Anaplasma spp. Parasitol. 39: 99–109.
3. De La Fuente J, Ruybal P, Mtshali M S, Naranjo V, Shuqing L, Mangold A J, Rodríguez S D, Jiménez R, Vicente J, Moretta R (2007) Analysis of world strains of Anaplasma marginale using major surface protein 1a repeat se-quences. Vet Microbiol. 119: 382–390.
4. Logigian E L, Kaplan R F, Steere A C (1990) Chronic neurologic manifesta-tions of Lyme disease. N Engl J Med. 323: 1438–1444.
5. Bratton RL, Corey R (2005) Tick-borne disease. Am Fam Physician. 71: 2323–2330.
6. Belman AL (1999) Tick-borne dis¬eases. Seminars in pediatric neurol¬ogy, El-sevier. 6(4): 249–266.
7. Piesman J, Eisen L (2008) Prevention of Tick-Borne diseases. Annu Rev Ento-mol. 53: 323–343.
8. Uilenberg G (1997) General review of tick-borne diseases of sheep and goats world-wide. Parasitol. 39: 161–165.
9. Bekker CP, De Vos S, Taoufik A, Spa-ragano OA, Jongejan F (2002) Simu-ltaneous detection of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species in ruminants and de-tection of Ehrlichia ruminan¬tium in Amblyomma variegatum ticks by re-verse line blot hybridization. Vet Mic-robiology. 89: 223–238.
10. Pshenichnaya NY, Nenadskaya SA (2015) Probable Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus transmission occurred after aerosol-generating medical procedures in Russia: noso-comial cluster. Int J In-fect Dis. 33: 120–122.
11. Ligon BL (2006) Plague: A review of its history and potential as a biological weapon. Seminars in pediatric infec-tious diseases, Elsevier. 17(3): 161–170.
12. Guillemin J (2006) Scientists and the history of biological weapons. EMBO reports. 7: 45–49.
13. Riedel S (2004) Biological warfare and bioterrorism: a historical review. Bayl Univ Med Cent. 17(4): 400–406.
14. Wheelis M (1998) Biological warfare before 1914. The prescientific era. Biological and Toxin weapons research. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 120.
15. Leitenberg M (2001) Biological weapons in the twentieth century: a review and analysis. Crit Rev Microbiol. 27: 267–320.
16. Longo D, Fauci A, Kasper D, Hauser S (2011) Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 18th edition, McGraw-Hill Professional. 2012. Germs: biological weapons and America's secret war, Simon and Schuster.
17. Abdi Goudarzi M (2013) Detection of Naturally Infected Vector Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) by Different species of Babesia and Theileria Agents from three different enzootic parts of Iran J Arthropod Borne Dis. 7: 164–171.
18. Dreher UM, Hofmann-Lehmann R, Meli ML, Regula G, Cagienard AY, Stärk KD, Doherr MG, Filli F, Hässig M, Braun U (2005) Seroprevalence of anaplasmosis among cattle in Switzerland in 1998 and 2003: no evidence of an emerging disease. Vet Microbiol. 107: 71–79.
19. Rymaszewska A, Grenda S (2008) Bacteria of the genus Anaplasmacharacteristics of Anaplasma and their vectors: A review. Vet Med. 53: 573–584.
20. Ismail N, Bloch KC, Mcbride JW (2010) Human ehrlichiosis and ana-plasmosis. Clin Lab Med. 30: 261–292.
21. Buller RS, Arens M, Hmiel SP, Paddock CD, Sumner JW, Rikihisa Y, Unver A, Gaudreault-Keener M, Manian FA, Liddell AM (1999) Ehrlichia ewingii, a newly recognized agent of human ehrlichiosis. New Engl J of Me. 341: 148–155.
22. Stokka G, Falkner R, Boening J (2000) Anaplasmosis Agricultural Experiment station and cooperative extention service, Kansas State University. Available at: http://www.oznet.ksu.edu
23. Kocan KM, Blouin EF, Barbet AF (2000) Anaplasmosis control: past, present, and future. Ann Ny Acad Sci. 916: 501–509.
24. Hosseini-Vasoukolaei N, Oshaghi MA, Shayan P, Vatandoost H, Ba¬bamah-moudi F, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Telmadarraiy Z, Mohtarami F (2014) Ana-plasma Infection in Ticks, Livestock and Human in Ghaemshahr, Mazandaran Province, Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 8: 204–211.
25. Razmi GR, Dastjerdi K, Hossieni H, Naghibi A, Barati F, Aslani M (2006) An epidemiological study on Anaplasma infection in cattle, sheep, and goats in Mashhad suburb, Khorasan Province, Iran. Ann Ny Acad Sci. 1078: 479–481.
26. Spitalska E, Namavari MM, Hosseini MH, Shad-Del F, Amrabadi OR, Sparagano OA (2005) Molecular surveillance of tick-borne diseases in Iranian small ruminants. Small Ruminant Res. 57: 245–248.
27. Noaman V, Shayan P (2009) Molecular detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in carrier cattle of Iran-first documented report. Iran J Micro-biol. 1: 37–42.
28. Bashirbod H (2004) First Molecular Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophi-him in Ixodes ricinus Ticks in Iran. J Med Sci. 4: 282–286.
29. Center for Disease Control (CDC) (2017) Tick borne diseases of the United States: A reference manual for health care providers. 4th edition. p. 21.
30. Hoogstraal H (1979) Review Article: The Epidemiology of Tick-Borne Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Asia, Europe, and Africa. J Med Entomol. 15: 307–417.
31. Rar VA, Livanova NN, Panov V, Kozlova IV, Pukhovskaya NM, Vysochina NP, Tkachev SE, Ivanov LI (2008) Prevalence of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species in Ixodes persulcatus ticks and small mammals from different regions of the Asian part of Russia. Int J Med Microbiol. 298: 222–230.
32. Walker AR, BouattourJ, Camicas L, Estrada-PeñaI A, Horak G, Latif AA, Pegram RG, Preston PM (2003(Ticks of domestic animals in Africa: a guide to identification of species, Bioscience reports Edinburgh. ISBN: 0-9545173-0-X. p. 120.
33. Hoogstraal H (1956) African Ixodidae. 1. Ticks of the Sudan with special reference to Equatoria Province and with preliminary reviews of the genera Boophilus Margaropus and Hyalomma. Department of the Navy, Bureau of Medical Surgery, Washington, DC.
34. Theiler A (1910) Anaplasma marginale (Gen. and spec. nov.): The marginal points in the blood of cattle suffering from a specific disease. Pretoria: Government Printing and Stationary Office. Available at: http://hdl.handle.net/2263/10409
35. Theiler A (1911) Further investigations into anaplasmosis of South African cattle. First report of the director of Veterinary Research, Union of South Africa, pp. 7–46.
36. Donatien A, Lestoquard F (1936) Rickettsia bovis, novelle specie pathogen pour le boeuf. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 29: 1057–1061.
37. Dumler JS, Barbet AF, Bekker C, Dasch GA, Palmer GH, Ray SC, Rikihisa Y, Rurangirwa FR (2001) Reorganization of genera in the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales: unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, descriptions of six new species combinations and designation of Ehrlichia equi and 'HGE agent' as subjective synonyms of Ehrlichia phagocytophila. Int J Syst Evol Micr. 51: 2145–2165.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.