Emerging of Cutaneous Leishmaniais Due to Leishmania major in a New Focus in Esfahan Province, Central Iran

  • Reza Jafari Esfahan Health Research Station, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Esfahan, Iran
  • Hamid Abdoli Esfahan Health Research Station, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Esfahan, Iran
  • Mohammad Hossein Arandian Esfahan Health Research Station, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Esfahan, Iran
  • Nilofar Shareghi Esfahan Health Research Station, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Esfahan, Iran
  • Maryam Ghanei Esfahan Health Research Station, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Esfahan, Iran
  • Nilofar Jalali-Zand Esfahan Health Research Station, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Esfahan, Iran
  • Shahram Nekoeian Esfahan Province Health Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Esfahan, Iran
  • Arshad Veysi Zoonoses Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
  • Ahmad Montazeri Naein Health Care Network, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Esfahan, Iran
  • Amirabdollah Ghasemi Naein Health Care Network, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Esfahan, Iran
  • Javad Ramazanpour Esfahan Province Health Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Esfahan, Iran
  • Reza Fadaei Esfahan Province Health Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Esfahan, Iran
  • Amir Ahmad Akhavan Mail Esfahan Health Research Station, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Esfahan, Iran
Keywords:
Cutaneous Leishmaniais; Leishmania major; Epidemiology; Central Iran

Abstract

Background: Esfahan Province is considered as one of the main focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in Iran. Recently, ZCL distribution is expanding through this province leading to report of new cases in non-endemic areas. In the current study epidemiological aspects of ZCL has been investigated in Naein County in Esfahan Prov­ince.Methods: Adult sand flies were collected from beginning to the end of their seasonal activity. Rodents were caught by Sherman live traps once a month for one year. To active case detection, a hundred households in each selected village were visited in November and December 2016. Nested-PCR was employed to detect Leishmania parasite in the vector, reservoir and human.Results: Totally 1562 sand flies including Phlebotomus sergenti, Phlebotomus papatasi, Sergentomyia sintoni and Sergentomyia mervinae were collected and identified. No Leishmania infection was detected in the collected sand flies. All of the 30 collected rodents were identified as Rhombomys opimus and of these 3.3% and 26.7% were in­fected by Leishmania major using microscopic and molecular technique respectively. Totally, 914 individuals were investigated and the ulcer and scar rate of ZCL calculated to be at 1.1 and 15.3per 1000 population, respectively. Molecular results confirmed L. major infection in human and reservoir samples.Conclusion: It is concluded that ZCL is established in the area in low endemicity, and it is extrapolated the disease will not be a serious increasing health problem in near future in this region.

References

1. Alvar J, Vélez ID, Bern C, Herrero M, Desjeux P, Cano J, Jannin J, de Boer M (2012) Leishmaniasis worldwide and global estimates of its incidence. PLoS One. 7(5): e35671.
2. Moradi G, Veysi A, Rahmani K, Erfani H, Doosti-Irani A, Shirzadi MR, Ghara¬chorloo F, Nabavi M, Gouya MM (2019) Leishmaniasis surveillance system in the islamic republic of Iran: History, structures and processes. Iran J Epi¬demiol. 15(1): 95–104.
3. Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR (2012) Phlebotom-ine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Iran and their role on Leishmania transmission. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 6(1): 1–17.
4. Akhavan AA (2011) Immune Response of Great Gerbil against Phlebotomus pa-patasi Saliva. L Lambert Acad Publ Saarbrücken, Germany.
5. Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Akhavan AA, Mohebali M (1996) Meriones libycus and Rhombomys opimus (Rodentia: Gerbillidae) are the main reservoir hosts in a new focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 90(5): 503–504.
6. Shirzadi MR, Esfahania SB, Mohebalia M, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Gharachor-lo F, Razavia MR, Postigo JAR (2015) Situation épidémiologique de la leish-maniose en République islamique d’ Iran, 1983–2012. East Mediterr Heal J. 21(10): 736–742.
7. Nadim A, Amini H (1970) The effect of antimalaria spraying on the transmis-sion of zoonotic cutaneous leishmania-sis. Trop Geogr Med. 22: 479–481.
8. Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Akhavan AA, Zahraei-Ramazani AR, Javadian E, Mo¬tavalli-Emami M (2000) Field trial for the control of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniosis in Badrood, Iran. Ann Saudi Med. 20(5–6): 386–389.
9. Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Zahraei-Rama¬zani AR, Akhavan AA, Jalali-Zand AR, Abdoli H, Nadim A (2005) Ro¬dent control operations against zoono¬tic cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural Iran. Ann Saudi Med. 25(4): 309–312.
10. Veysi A, Vatandoost H, Yaghoobi-Er-shadi MR, Arandian MH, Jafari R, Hos¬seini M, Abdoli H, Rassi Y, Hei-dari K, Sadjadi A, Fadaei R, Rama-zanpour J, Aminian K, Shirzadi MR, Akhavan AA (2012) Comparative study on the effectiveness of coumavec® and zinc phosphide in controlling zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in a hyperen¬demic focus in central Iran. J Arthro¬pod Borne Dis. 6(1): 18–27.
11. Veysi A, Vatandoost H, Arandian MH, Jafari R, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Rassi Y, Akhavan AA (2013) Laboratory evaluation of a rodenticide-insecticide, coumavec®, against Rhombomys opi-mus, the main reservoir host of zoono-tic cutaneouse leishmaniasis in Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 7(2): 188–193.
12. Veysi A, Vatandoost H, Yaghoobi-Er-shadi MR, Jafari R, Arandian MH, Hosseini M, Fadaei R, Ramazanpour J, Heidari K, Sadjadi A, Shirzadi MR, Akhavan AA (2016) Rodenticide com¬parative effect of Klerat® and zinc phos¬phide for controlling zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in central Iran. Iran J Parasitol. 11(4): 471–479.
13. Akhavan AA, Veysi A, Arandian MH, Vatandoost H, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Hosseini M, Abdoli H, Heidari K, Sadjadi A, Fadaei R, Ramazanpour J, Aminian K, Shirzadi MR, Jafari R (2014) Field evaluation of phostoxin and zinc phosphide for the control of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in a hyperendemic area, central iran. J Vec-tor Borne Dis. 51(4): 307–312.
14. Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Moosa-Kazemi SH, Zahraei-Ramazani AR, Jalai-Zand AR, Akhavan AA, Arandain MH, Abdoli H, Houshmand B, Nadim A, Hosseini M (2006) Evaluation of del-tamethrin-impregnated bed nets and curtains for control of zoonotic cutane-ous leishmaniasis in a hyperendemic area of Iran. Bull la Soc Pathol Exot. 99(1): 43–48.
15. Moosa-Kazemi SH, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Akhavan AA, Abdoli H, Zahrael-Ramazani AR, Jafari R, Houshmand B, Nadim A, Hosseini M (2007) Del-tamethrin-impregnated bed nets and curtains in an anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis control program in North¬eastern Iran. Ann Saudi Med. 27(1): 6–12.
16. Mohebali M, Khamesipour A, Mobedi I, Zarei Z, Hashemi-Fesharki R (2004) Double-blind randomized efficacy field trial of alum precipitated autoclaved Leishmania major vaccine mixed with BCG against canine visceral leish¬man¬iasis in Meshkin-Shahr District, Iran. Vaccine. 22(29–30): 4097–4100.
17. Nadim A, Javadian E, Tahvildar Bidruni G, Ghorbani M (1983) Effectiveness of leishmanization in the control of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales. 76(4): 377–383.
18. Sayedi-Rashti MA, Nadim A (1992) The genus Phlebotomus (Diptera: Psycho-didae: Phlebotominae) of the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Iran J Public Heal. 21(1/4): 11–50.
19. Theodor O, Mesghali A (1964) On The Phlebotominae of Iran. J Med Ento-mol. 1(3): 285–300.
20. Etemad E (1978) Mammals of Iran. Rodents and their Identification. Natu¬ral Resources and Human Environ¬ment, (1978); Vol. 1.
21. Akhavan AA, Mirhendi H, Khamesipour A, Alimohammadian MH, Rassi Y, Bates P, Kamhawi S, Valenzuela J G, Arandian MH, Abdoli H, Jalali-zand N, Jafari R, Shareghi N, Ghanei M, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR (2010) Leish-mania species: Detection and identi-fication by nested PCR assay from skin samples of rodent reservoirs. Exp Parasitol. 126(4): 552–556.
22. Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Akhavan AA, Zahraei-Ramazani AV, Abai MR, Ebrahim B, Vafaei-Nezhad R, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Jafari R (2003) Epidemi-ological study in a new focus of cu-taneous leishmaniasis in the Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Heal J. 9(4): 816–826.
23. Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Javadian E (1997) Studies on sandflies in a hy-perendemic area of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. Indian J Med Res. 105(FEB.): 61–66.
24. Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Akhavan AA (1999) Entomological survey of sand-flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a new focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishma-niosis in Iran. Acta Trop. 73(3): 321–326.
25. Parvizi P, Mauricio I, Aransay AM, Miles MA, Ready PD (2005) First detection of Leishmania major in per-idomestic Phlebotomus papatasi from Isfahan Province, Iran: Comparison of nested PCR of nuclear ITS ribosomal DNA and semi-nested PCR of minicir-cle kinetoplast DNA. Acta Trop. 93 (1): 75–83.
26. Jafari R, Najafzadeh N, Sedaghat MM, Parvizi P (2013) Molecular character-ization of sandflies and Leishmania detection in main vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Abarkouh District of Yazd Province, Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 6(10): 792–797.
27. Darvishi M, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Shahbazi F, Akhavan AA, Jafari R, Soleimani H, Yaghoobi-Ershadi N, Khajeian M, Darabi H, Arandian MH (2015) Epidemiological study on sand flies in an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis, Bushehr City, South-western Iran. Front Public Heal. 3: 14.
28. Mohebali M, Javadian E, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Akhavan AA, Hajjaran H, Abaei MR (2004) Characterization of Leishmania infection in rodents from endemic areas of the Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Heal J. 10 (4–5): 591–599.
29. Hajjaran H, Mohebali M, Abaei MR, Oshaghi MA, Zarei Z, Charehdar S, Mirjalali H, Sharifdini M, Teimouri A (2013) Natural infection and phyloge-netic classification of Leishmania spp. infecting Rhombomys opimus, a pri-mary reservoir host of zoonotic cu-taneous leishmaniasis in Northeast Iran. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 107(9): 550–557.
30. Akhavan AA, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Khamesipour A, Mirhendi H, Alimo-hammadian MH, Rassi Y, Arandian MH, Jafari R, Abdoli H, Shareghi N, Ghanei M, Jalali-Zand N (2010) Dynamics of Leishmania infection rates in Rhombomys opimus (Rodentia: Ger-billinae) population of an endemic fo-cus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. Bull la Soc Pathol Exot. 103(2): 84–89.
31. Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Akhavan AA, Zahrai-Ramazani AR, Mohebali M (2001) Epidemiological study in a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniosis due to Leishmania major in Ardestan town, central Iran. Acta Trop. 79(2): 115–121.
Published
2020-05-03
How to Cite
1.
Jafari R, Abdoli H, Arandian MH, Shareghi N, Ghanei M, Jalali-Zand N, Nekoeian S, Veysi A, Montazeri A, Ghasemi A, Ramazanpour J, Fadaei R, Akhavan AA. Emerging of Cutaneous Leishmaniais Due to Leishmania major in a New Focus in Esfahan Province, Central Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 14(2):134–143.
Section
Original Article