Original Article

Evaluation of Larvicidal Efficacy of Ricinus communis (Castor) Plant Extract and Synthesized Green Silver Nanoparticles against Aedes albopictus


Background: Aedes mosquitoes are the most important group of vectors having ability of transmitting pathogens in­cluding arboviruses that can cause serious diseases like Chikungunya fever, Dengue fever and Zika virus in human. Biosynthesis and the use of green silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is an important step in the search of reliable and eco­friendly control of these vectors.Methods: In this study an aqueous leaves extract of Ricinus communis (castor) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) syn­thesized from this extract were evaluated as larvicidal agent for 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of the Aedes albopictus. Differ­ent concentrations (50, 100, 150, 200 and 250ppm) of plant extract and synthesized nanoparticles were prepared and applied on second and third instar larvae. The percent mortality was noted after 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42 and 48H of exposure and subjected to probit analysis to calculate LC50 and LC90.Results: Synthesized Ag+ nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spec­troscopy (FT-IR), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (XRD). The nanoparticles were more toxic against larvae of Ae. albopictus with LC50 value (49.43ppm) and LC90 value (93.65ppm) for 2nd instar larvae and LC50 (84.98ppm) and LC90 (163.89ppm) for 3rd instar larvae as compared to the plant extract (149.58ppm, 268.93ppm) and (155.58ppm, 279.93ppm) for 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of Ae. albopictus respectively after 48H.Conclusion: Our results suggest the extract of R. communis and synthesized nanoparticles as excellent replacement of chemical pesticides to control the vector mosquitoes.
1. Rozendaal JA (1997) Mosquitos and other biting Diptera vectors of malaria leish-mania¬sis filariasis onchocerciasis den-gue yellow fever and other diseases. In: Rozendaal JA (Eds): Vector Control Meth¬ods for Use by Individuals and Communities, World Health Organiza-tion, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 7–177.
2. Service M (2004) Medical Entomology for Students. 3rd edition, Cambridge Uni-versity Press, UK.
3. WHO (2006) Pesticides and their applica-tion for the control of vectors and pests of public health importance. World Health Or¬ganization, Geneva, Switzer-land, p.114.
4. Rajkumar G, Rahuman A (2011) Larvicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparti¬cles using Eclipta prostrata leaf extract against filariasis and malaria vectors. Acta Trop. 118: 196–203.
5. Jahan F (2017) Dengue Fever (DF) in Paki-stan. Asia Pacific Fam Med. 10(1): 1–4.
6. WHO (2017) EMRO Weekly Epidemio-logical Monitor. 10: 40.
7. Darwish MA, Hoogstraal H, Roerts TJ, Ahmed IP, Omar F (1983) A sero-epi-de¬mio¬logical survey for certain arbo-virus¬es (To¬gaviridae) in Pakistan. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 77: 442–445.
8. Rauf M, Fatima-tuz-Zahra, Sobia M, Azra M, Shameem B (2017) Outbreak of chikungunya in Pakistan. Lancet Infect Dis. 17: 258.
9. Isman MB (2006) Botanical insecticides deterrents and repellents in modern ag-ricul¬ture and an increasingly regulated world. Ann Rev Entomol. 51: 45–66.
10. Zhu J, Zeng X, Neal OM, Schultz G (2008) Mosquito larvicidal activity of botani¬cal based mosquito repellents. J Amer Mosq Cont Assoc. 2: 161–168.
11. Ghosh A, Chowdhury N, Chandra G (2012) Plant extracts as potential mos¬quito lar-vicides. Ind J Med Plants Res. 13: 581–598.
12. Khair-ul-Bariyah S, Ahmed D, Ikram M (2015) Ocimum basilicum: a review on phy¬tochemical and pharmacological stud¬ies. Pak J Chem. 2: 78–85.
13. Mdoe FP, Cheng SS, Msangi S, Nkwen-gulila G, Chang ST, Kweka EJ (2014) Activ¬ity of Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essen¬tial oil against Anopheles gam¬biae. Parasite Vect. 7: 209. 1–6.
14. Pavela R (2016) History presence and perspective of using plant extracts as com¬mercial botanical insecticides and farm prod¬ucts for protection against in-sects - A review. Plant Protect Sci. 52: 229–241.
15. Al-Mekhlafi FA (2018) Larvicidal ovi-cidal activities and histopathological al¬tera¬tions induced by Carum copticum (Apiaceae) extract against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Cu¬licidae). Saudi J Biol Sci. 25: 52–56.
16. Arjunan N, Murugan K, Rejeeth C, Mad-hiyazhagan, Barnard D (2012) Green synthe¬sis of silver nanoparticles for the control of mosquito vectors of malaria, filariasis, and dengue. Vector Borne Zo¬onot Dis. 12: 262–268.
17. Subramaniam J, Murugan K, Pan¬neerselvam C (2015) Ecofriendly con¬trol of malaria and arbovirus vectors us¬ing the mos-qui¬tofish Gambusia affinis and ultra-low dos¬ages of Mimusops elengi-synthe¬sized silver nanoparticles: towards an integra¬tive ap¬proach. Env Sci Poll Res. 22: 20067–20083.
18. Okumu FO, Knols BG, Fillinger U (2007) Larvicidal effects of a neem (Aza-dirachta in¬dica) oil formulation on the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Ma-lar J. 6: 63. 1–8.
19. Eliman MA, Elmalik KH, Ali FS (2009) Efficacy of leaves extract of Calotropis procera Ait. (Asclepiadaceae) in con-trolling Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinoquefas¬ciatus mosquito. Saudi J Biol Sci. 16: 95–100.
20. Bilal H, Hassan SA (2012) Plants second-ary metabolites for mosquito control. Asian Pac J Trop Dis. 2: 168–168.
21. Borase H, Patil C, Patil R (2013) Phyto-synthesized silver nanoparticles: a po-tent mosquito biolarvicidal agent. J Na-nomed Bi¬otech Dis. 3(1): 1–7.
22. Muthukumaran U, Govindarajan U, Ra-jeswary M, Hoti S (2015) Synthesis and char¬acterization of silver nanoparticles using Gmelina asiatica leaf extract against filaria¬sis, dengue, and malaria vector mos-quitoes. Parasitol Res. 114: 1817–1827.
23. Jitendra J, Ashish KG (2012) Ricinus com¬munis Linn: A phytopharmacologi-cal Re¬view. Int J Pharm Pharmaceutical Sci. 4: 0975–1491.
24. Palanivelu J, Kunjumon MM, Suresh A, Nair A, Ramalingam C (2015) Green synthe¬sis of silver nanoparticles from Dracaena ma¬hatma leaf extract and its antimicrobial activ¬ity. J Pharmaceutical Sci Res. 7: 690–695.
25. Satyavani K, Ramanathan T, Gurudeeban S (2011) Plant mediated synthesis of bi¬o¬medical silver nanoparticles by leaf ex¬tract of Citrullus colosynthis. Res J Nano Tech. 1: 95–101.
26. Vogel AI (1978) Text Book of Practical Organic Chemistry. The English Lan-guage Book Society and Longman, Lon¬don. pp. 1540.
27. Sathyavathi R, Krishna KB, Venugopal Rao M (2010) Biosynthesis of silver na¬no¬particles using Coriandrum sa-tivum leaf ex¬tract and their application in non¬linear optics. Adv Sci Letters. 3: 1–6.
28. Rajesh WR, Jaya RL, Niranjan SK, Vijay DM, Sahelebrao BK (2009) Phyto syn-thesis of silver nanoparticles using Glir¬icidia sepium (Jaeq). Current Nanosci. 5: 117–122.
29. Vivek M, Kumar PS, Steffi S, Sudha S (2011) Biogenic silver nanoparticles by Ge¬lidiella acerosa extract and their an-tifungal effects. Avicenna J Medical Bi¬otech. 3: 143–148.
30. Barraud PJ (1934) The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Dip¬tera family Culicidae.Tribe Meg-arhinini and Cu¬licini. Taylor Francis, London, pp. 463.
31. Qasim M, Naeem M, Bodlah I (2014) Mos¬quito (Diptera: Culicidae) of Mur¬ree Hills, Punjab, Pakistan. Pak J Zool. 46: 523–529.
32. Akram W, Khan HAA, Hafeez F, Bilal H, Kim YK, Lee JJ (2010) Potential of cit-rus seed extracts against dengue fever mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Cu¬licdae: Dipetra). Pak J Bot. 42: 3343–3348.
33. Arivoli S, Ravindran KJ, Raveen R, Ten-nyson S (2012) Larvicidal activity of botani¬cals against the filarial vector Cu¬lex quin¬quefasciatus Say (Dip¬tera: Cu¬licidae). Int J Zool Res. 2: 13–17.
34. Murthy JM, Rani PU (2009) Biological activity of certain botanical extracts as larvi¬cides against the yellow fever mos¬quito, Ae¬des aegypti. J Biopest. 2: 72–76.
35. Soni S, Prakash S (2013) Possible mos-quito control by silver nanoparticles syn¬the¬sized by soil fungus (Aspergillus niger). Adv Nanoparticles. 2: 125–132.
36. Abbott WS (1925) A method of compu-ting the effectiveness of insecticide. J Econ Entomol.18: 265–267.
37. Ahmed S, Ahmad M, Swami BL, Ikram S (2016) A review on plants extract medi¬ated synthesis of silver nanoparticles for anti¬microbial applications: a green ex¬per¬tise. J Adv Res. 7: 17–28.
38. Jinu U, Rajakumaran S, Senthil-Nathan S, Geetha N, Venkatachalam P (2018) Po-tential larvicidal activity of silver nano¬hybrids syn¬thesized using leaf extracts of Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb.) Benth. ex Hook.f. and Strychnos nuxvomica L. nuxvomica against dengue, Chikungu¬nya and Zika vectors. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol. 101: 163–171.
39. Karthikeyan AP, Kadarkarai M, Chel-lasamy P (2012) Biolarvicidal and pupi¬cidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Euphorbia hirta against Anopheles ste-phensi Liston (Diptera: Cu¬licidae) Parasitol Res. 11: 997–1006.
40. Hemant PB, Chandrashekhar DP, Rahul BS (2013) Phyto-synthesized silver na-nopar¬ticles: a potent mosquito biolarvi-cidal agent. J Nanomed Biotherapeutic Dis. 3: 1.
41. Elimam AM, Elmalik KH, Ali FS (2009) Larvicidal, adult emergence inhibition and oviposition deterrent effects of foli¬age extract from Ricinus communis L. against Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus in Su¬dan. Trop Bio¬med. 26(2): 130–139.
42. Basheer AGM (2014) Ricinus communis (CASTOR) as larvicide on Anopheles ara¬biensis Patton. Int J Adv Pha Biol Chem. 3: 2277–4688.
43. Mandal S (2010) Exploration of larvicidal and adult emergence inhibition activi¬ties of Ricinus communis seed extract against three potential mosquito vectors in Kolkata, India. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 3(8): 605–609.
IssueVol 14 No 2 (2020) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/jad.v14i2.3734
Dengue mosquito; Larvicidal; Ricinus communis; Mosquito larvae; AgNPs

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Waris M, Nasir S, Rasule A, Yousaf I. Evaluation of Larvicidal Efficacy of Ricinus communis (Castor) Plant Extract and Synthesized Green Silver Nanoparticles against Aedes albopictus. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 14(2):162–172.