Evaluation of Susceptibility of Aedes caspius (Diptera: Culicidae) to Insecticides in a potent arboviral-prone Area, Southern Iran
AbstractBackground: Southern part of the country is a high risk for mosquito transmitted Arboviruses. This study was carried out to determine the base line susceptibility of the Aedini mosquitoes to the WHO-recommended insecticide.Methods: Larval collection was carried out by dipping method and adult collection occurred by suction tube from January to December 2017. The adult susceptibility test was assessed to Bendiocarb 0.1%, DDT 4%, Deltamethrin 0.05%, Lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05%, Malathion 5% and, Permethrin 0.75% at different interval times as well as at discriminative dose recommended by WHO. The larval susceptibility test was occurred using Temephos and Bacillus thuringiensis serotype H-14, at different concentrations. The LT50, LT90 and LC50, LC90 values were calculated for plotting the regression line using Microsoft office Excel software ver. 2007.Results: Aedes caspius was quite resistant to DDT, Malathion, Bendiocarb and showed susceptible or tolerant to other insecticides.The LT50 and LT90 values to DDT in this species were 157.896, and 301.006 minutes, respectively. The LC50 and LC90 values of Ae. caspius to Temephos were 0.000068, and 0.000130ppm, the figures for B. thuringiensis was 111.62 and 210.2ppm, respectively.Conclusion: A routine and continuous study for monitoring and evaluation of different species of Aedes to insectides is recommend at different parts of country for decision making.
2. WHO (2016) Test procedures for insecti-cide resistance monitoring in malaria vector mosquitoes.1. Insecticide re-sistance. 2. Malaria-prevention and control. 3. Insec¬ticides. 4. Insectcontrol. I. World Health Organ-ization. ISBN 978 92 4 150515 4 (NLM classification: WA 240) 2016. WHO Press, Avenue Appia, Geneva, Switzerland
3. Suaya JA, Shepard DS, Beatty ME (2007) Dengue burden of disease and costs of illness. Working paper 3.2 in: Report of the Scientific Working Group meet¬ing on Dengue, Geneva, 1–5 October. Geneva, World Health Organization, Special Programmed for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases. pp. 35–49.
4. Harbach R (2007) The Culicidae (Dip-tera): a review of taxonomy, classifica-tion and phylogeny. Zootaxa. 1668: 591–638.
5. Azari-Hamidian S, Norouzi B, Harbach RE (2019) A detailed review of the mosqui¬toes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Iran and their medical and veterinary im-portance). Acta
Trop. 194: 106–122.
6. Doosti S, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Schaffner F, Moosa-Kazemi SH, Ak-barzadeh K, Gooya MM, Vatandoost H, Shirzadi MR, Mostafavi E (2016) Mosquito surveillance and the first record of the invasive mosquito spe¬cies Aedes (Stegomyia) al¬bopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in south¬ern Iran. Iran J Public Health. 45 (8): 1064–1073.
7. Ali-Khan HA, Akram W, Shehzad K, Shaalan EA (2011) First report of filed evolved resistance to agrochemical in den¬gue mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Dip¬tera: Culicidae), from Pakistan. Parasit Vectors. 4: 146–152.
8. Rasheed SB, Butlin RK, Boots MA (2013) review of dengue as an emerg-ing disease in Pakistan Public Health. 127(1): 11–17.
9. Afzal MF, Naqvi SQ, Sultan MA, Hanif A (2015) Chikungunya fever among chil¬dren presenting with nonspecific febrile illness during an epidemic of dengue fe¬ver in Lahore, Pakistan. Mer-it Res J Med Sci. 3(3): 069–073.
10. Ergunay K, Gunay F, Oter K, Kasap OE, Orsten S, Akkutay AZ, Erdem H, Ozkul A, Alten B (2013) Arboviral surveil¬lance of field-collected mosqui-toes reveals cir¬culation of West Nile Virus Lineage 1 strains in Eastern Thrace, Turkey. Vector Borne Zoonot Dis. 13: 744–752.
11. Faghih MA (1969) Malaria and malaria erad¬ication. Tehran University Press. p. 726.
12. Zaim M, Zahirnia AH, Manouchehri AV (1993) Survival rates of Anopheles cu-licifaciess. l and Anopheles pulcher-rimus in sprayed and unsprayed villag-es' in Ghassre Ghand District, Baluchi-stan, Iran. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 9: 421–425
13. Eshghy N (1978) Tolerance of Anophe¬les stephensi to Malathion in the prov¬ince of Fars, southern Iran. Mosq News. 38 (4): 580–583.
14. Ghaffari AN (1955) The classification of Culicidae (Diptera: Nematocera): the study of Culex linneanues in Iran. Teh-ran University, School of Medicine, Iran, p. 189.
15. Pluess B, Tanser FC, Lengeler C, Sharp BL (2010) Indoor residual spraying for preventing malaria. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 4: 49.
16. Hanafi-Bojd AA, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Haghdoost AA, Shahi M, Sedaghat MM, Abedi F, Yeryan M, Pakari A (2012) Entomological and epidemi¬olog¬ical attributes for malaria transmission and implementation of vector control in southern Iran. Acta Trop. 121(2): 85–92.
17. Kamgang B, Marcombe S, Chandre F, Nchout¬pouen E, Nwane P, Etang J, Cor¬bel V, Paupy C (2011) Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Ae-des albopictus in Central Africa. Para-sit Vec¬tors. 15(4): 79.
18. Lee HL, Lime W (1989) A reevaluation of the susceptibility of field collected Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus) larvae to temephos in Malaysia. Mos-quito-Borne Dis Bull. 6: 91–95.
19. Chen CD, Nazni WA, Lee HL, Sofian-Azirun M (2005) Susceptibility of Ae-des aegypti and Aedes albopictus to temeph¬os in four study sites in Kuala Lumpur City center and Selangor State, Malaysia. Trop Biomed. 22(2): 207–216.
20. Nazni WA, Kamaludin MY, Lee HL, Rogayah TAR, Sa'diyah I (2000) Oxi-dase activity in relation to insecticides resistance in vectors of public health im¬portance. Trop Biomed. 17: 69–79.
21. Ponlawat A, Scott JG, Harrington LC (2005) Insecticide susceptibility of Ae-des aegypti and Aedes albopictus across Thailand. J Med Entomol. 42(5): 821–885.
22. Mouchet J, Cordellier V, Germain M, Car¬nevale P, Barathe J, Sannier C (1972) Ré¬sistance aux insecticides d' Aedes aegypti et Culex pipiens fatigues en Afrique cen¬trale. WHO/VBC/72/381, P, Geneva, Swit-zerland, World Health Organization.
23. Hemingway J, Ranson H (2000) Insecti-cide resistance in insect vectors of hu-man disease. Annu Rev Entomol. 45(1): 371–391.
24. Ranson H, Burhani J, Lumjuan N, Black WC (2010) Insecticide resistance in den¬gue vectors. Trop IKAnet J. 1(1): 379–386.
25. Vatandoost H, Shahi H, Abai MR, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Oshaghi MA, Za-mani G (2004a) Larval habitats of main malaria vectors in Hormozgan Province and their susceptibility to dif¬ferent larvi¬cides. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Pub¬lic Health. 35(2): 22–25.
26. Vatandoost H, Abai MR, Abbasi M, Shaeghi M, Abtahi M, Rafie F (2009) Designing of a laboratory model for eval¬uation of the residual effects of deltame¬thrin (K-othrine WP 5%) on different sur¬faces against malaria vec-tor, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: cu-licidae). J Vector Borne Dis. 46(4): 261–267.
27. Vatandoost H, Abai MR (2012) Irritabil-ity of malaria vector, Anopheles sacha-rovi to different insecticides in a ma-laria- prone area. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 5(2): 113–116.
28. Vatandoost H, Zahirnia AH (2010) Re-sponsiveness of Anopheles maculi-pennis to different imagicides during resurgent malaria. Asian Pacific J Trop Med. 3: 360–363.
29. Vatandoost H, Hanafi-Bojd AA (2012) Indication of pyrethroid resistance in the main malaria vector, Anopheles ste-phen¬si from Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 5 (9): 722–726.
30. Vatandoost H, Sanei Dehkordi A, Sadeghi SM, Davari B, Karimian F, Abai MR, Sedaghat MM (2012) Iden-tification of chemical constituents and larvicidal ac¬tivity of Kelussia odo-ratissima Mozaffarian essential oil against two mosquito vectors Anophe-les stephensi and Culex pipiens (Dip-tera: Culicidae). Exp Par¬asitol. 132(4): 470–474.
31. Fathian M, Vatandoost H, Moosa-Kazemi SH, Raeisi A, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Oshaghi MA, Sedaghat MM (2015) Sus¬ceptibility of culicidae mosquitoes to some insecticides rec-ommended by WHO in a malaria en-demic area of south¬eastern Iran. J Ar-thropod Borne Dis. 9 (1): 22–34.
32. Soltani A, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Enayati AA, Raeisi A, Eshraghian MR, Soltan-Dallal MM, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Abai MR, Rafi F (2013) Baseline sus-ceptibility of different geographical strains of Anopheles stephensi (Dip¬tera: Culicidae) to Temephos in malar¬ious ar¬eas of Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 7 (1): 56–60.
33. Soltani A, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Ravasan NM, Enayati AA, Asgarian F (2015) Mechanisms of Temephos re-sistant in Anopheles stephensi. J Ar-thropod Borne Dis. 9(1): 71–83.
34. Vatandoost H, Hanafi-Bojd AA (2005) Current resistant status of Anopheles stephensi Liston to different larvicides in Hormozgan Province, southeastern Iran. Pakistan J Bio Sci. 8: 1568–1570.
35. Moosa-Kazemi SH, Vatandoost H, Rae-isi A, Akbarzadeh K (2007) Deltame-thrin impregnated bed nets in a malaria control program in Chabahar, South-east Baluchistan, Iran. Iran J Arthro-pod-Borne Dis. 1: 43–51.
36. Ministry of Health (MOH) (2010) Medi-cal Edu¬cation (ME) of Iran Annual re-port of malaria control department. Teh¬ran: CDC, Iran, pp. 50–65.
37. Garabedian GA, Matossian RM, Musalli MN (1971) Serologic evidence of ar-bovirus infection in Lebanon. Le Jour-nal medical libanais. The Lebanese Med J. 24(4): 339–350.
38. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Guidelines for the surveil-lance of invasive mosquitoes in Europe 2015. Available at: ecdc.europa.eu/en/.../TER-Mosquito-surveillance-guidelines.pdf
39. Aghaie A, Aaskov J, Chinikar S, Niedrig M, Banazadeh S, Mohammadpour HK (2014) Frequency of dengue virus in-fection in blood donors in Sistan and Baluchistan province in Iran. Transfus APher Sci. 50(1): 59–62.
40. Saidi S (1971) Survey of antibodies to arboviruses in human population of Iran. P. Med J. 2(3): 485–490.
41. Chinikar S, Ghiasi SM, Shah-Hosseini N, Mostafavi E, Moradi M, Kha¬kifirouz S (2013) Preliminary study of dengue virus infection in Iran. Travel Med Infect Dis. 11(3): 166–169.
42. Elyan DS, Moustafa L, Noormal B, Ja-cobs JS, Aziz MA, Hassan KS, Wasfy MO, Monestersky JH, Oyofo BA (2014) Serological evidence of Fla-viviruses infection among acute febrile illness patients in Afghanistan. J Infect Dev Ctries. 8: 1176–1180.
43. Meterological organization of Iran. Available at: http//:theiranproject.com/blog/tag/iran-2015
44. WHO (2004) A review of entomological sampling methods and indicators for dengue vectors focks infectious disease UNICEF/UNDP/WORLD BANK/WHO. Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR). p. 40.
45. Zaim M, Cranston PS (1986) Checklist and keys to the Culicinae of Iran (Dip-tera: Culicidae). Mosq Syst. 18: 233–245.
46. Vosshall (2014) Laboratory Mosquito rearing standard operating procedures last re¬vised: December 12, 2014 La-boratory of neurogenetics and behav-ior, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, Box 63, New York, NY 10065, USA.
47. Abbott WS (1925) A method of compu-ting the effectiveness of an insecticide. J Econ Entomol. 8: 265–267.
48. WHO (2006) Pesticides and their appli-cation. For the control of vectors and pests of public health importance. Vol-ume WHO/CDS/NTD/WHOPES/GCDPP/2006.1.WHO Press, Avenue Appia, Ge-neva, Switzerland.
49. Finney DJ (1971) Probit analysis (3rd ed): Cambridge University Press, Cam-bridge, UK. 333: 3.
50. Vatandoost H, Shahi H, Abai MR, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Oshaghi MA, Za-mani G (2004b) Larval habitats of main malaria vectors in Hormozgan Province and their susceptibility to dif-ferent larvicides. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Pubic Health. 35: 22–25.
51. Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Abaie MR, Shahi M, Yaaghoobi F, Baghaii M, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Zamani G, Townson H (2006) Bionomics of Anopheles ste-phensi Liston in the malarious area of Hormozgan Province, southern Iran, 2002. Acta Trop. 97(2): 196–203.
52. Tun-Lin W, Burkot TR, Kay BH (2000) Effects of temperature and larval diet on development rates and survival of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in north Queensland Australia. Med Vet Entomol. 14: 31–37.
53. Abdalmagid MA, Elkhalifa SM, Ismail AB, Ismail SM, Abdalrahman AH, Jamal AE, Brair M, Elnaeim IH (2012) The mosquito dunk (Bacillus thu-ringensis israeliensis) as a control agent against mosquito larvae in Khar¬toum State, Sudan. Sudan J Public Health. 7: 51–55.
54. Jahan N, Shahid A (2012) Evaluation of resistance against Bacillus thurin¬giensis israelensis WDG in dengue vector from Lahore, Pakistan. Pak J Zool. 44(4): 945–949.
55. Lacey LA, Siegel JP (2000) Safety and ecotoxicology of entomopathogenic bac¬teria. In: Charles JF, Dele´cluse A, Niel¬sen- LeRoux C (ed) Entomopatho-genic bacteria: from laboratory to field appli¬cation. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dor¬drecht, pp. 253–273.
56. Mittal PK (2003) Bio larvicides in vector control: Challenges and prospects. J Vector Borne Dis. 40: 20–32.
57. Junwei Z, Xiaopeng Z, Yanma TL, Ting L, Kuen Q, Yuhua H, Suqin X, Brad T (2006) Adult repellency and larvicidal activity of five plant essential oils against mosquitoes. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 3: 515–522.
58. Lacey LA (2007) Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus for mosquito control. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 23: 133–163.
59. Mulla MS (1990) Activity, field efficacy and use of Bacillus thuringiensis is-raelensis against mosquitoes. In: Bar¬jac H, Sutherland DJ (ed) Bacterial control of mosquitoes and black flies: Biochemistry, genetics and applica-tions of Bacillus thuringiensis is-raelensis and Bacillus sphaericus. Rutgers University Press, New Bruns-wick, New Jersey, pp. 134–160.
60. Rodrigues IB, Tadei WP, Dias JS (1999) Larvicidal activity of Bacillus sphaeri-cus 2362 against Anopheles nuneztova-ri, Anopheles darling and Anopheles braziliensis (Diptera: culicidae). Rev Inst Med Trop S Paulo. 41(2): 101–105.
61. Ramathilaga A, Murugesan AG, Sathesh C (2012) Prabu Bio larvicidal activity of Peani bacillus macerans and Bacil-lus subtilis isolated from the dead lar-vae against Aedes aegypti-Vector for Chikungunya. Proc Int Acad Ecol En-viron Sci. 2: 90–95.
62. Haung RN, LO IP, Ho C, Haung JS, Hsu EL (1993) Effectiveness of two forms of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelen¬sis on mosquito’s larvae. Chin J Ento¬mol. 13: 177–185.
63. Gbehou NA, Christophe HS, Yilian L (2010) Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (H-14) on Culex, Aedes and Anopheles larvae (Cotonou; Be-nin). Stem Cell. 1: 60–67.
64. Boisvert M (2005) Utilization of Bacil¬lus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti)-based formulations for the biological control of mosquitoes in Canada. In: 6th Pacific Rim Conference on the bio-technology of Bacillus thuringiensis and its environmental impact, Victoria BC,
65. Margalit J, Bobroglo H (1984) The ef¬fect of organic materials and solids in water on the persistence of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Serotype H‐14. Zeitschrift für Angewandte En-tomologie. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0418.1984.tb03785.x.
66. Margalit JC, Pascar-gluzman H, Bobroglo Z, Barak, Lahkim-tsror L (1985) Biocontrol of mosquitoes in Is-rael. In: Laird M, Miles JW (ed) Inte-grated mosquito control methodolo-gies. San-93 Diego, Academic Press. pp. 361–374.
67. Ohana B, Margalit J, Barak Z (1987) Fate of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis under Simulated Field Con-ditions. Appl Environ Microbiol. 53(4): 828–831.
68. Kemabonta KA, Nwankwo A (2013) larvicidal effectiveness of spinosad and temephos on Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti. Int J Sci Nat. 4(2): 214–222.
69. World Health Organization. (2009) Den-gue guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control: new edition. Available at: World Health Or-ganization. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/44188
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.