Cardiotoxic and Arrhythmogenic Effects of Hemiscorpius lepturus Scorpion Venom in Rats

  • Khalil Pourkhalili Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.
  • Euikyung Kim College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, South Korea.
  • Navid Reza Mashayekhy Department of Cardiology, Amir Kabir Hospital, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran.
  • Mostafa Kamyab Department of Biotechnology, Persian Gulf Research Institute, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, Iran.
  • Seyed Mehdi Hoseiny Department of Hematology and Oncology, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.
  • Reihane Evazy Department of Biology, Jahrom Branch, Islamic Azad University, Jahrom, Iran.
  • Abbas Zare-Mirakabadi Department of Venomous Animals and Antisera Produstion, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Hesarak, Iran.
  • Ramin Seyedian Mail Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.
Hemiscorpius lepturus, Contractility, Arrhythmogenicity, Envenomation


Background: Envenomation by Hemiscorpius lepturus is not painful and the clinical manifestations include bloody urine due to hemoglobinuria or hematuria, dermonecrotic reactions,cardiac arrhythmia and in minority of cases acute renal failure which may lead to death following disseminated intravascular coagulation in infants. Cardiac effects of envenomation by H. lepturus venom including inotropic, chronotropic and arrhythmogenic properties are not studied as now in rat hearts with Langendorff apparatus.Methods: Rat hearts were allowed to equilibrate in its buffer and cardiotropic plus arrhythmogenic effects induced by injection of different doses of H. lepturus venom were detected and recorded by computer acquisition based data in Langendorff apparatus. The neutralizing effects of Razi Institute antivenom and autonomic drugs were assayed in parallel studies.Results: Hemiscorpius lepturus venom (25 μg/100 l) treatment caused a negative inotropic (65.4 ± 3.2 versus 110.2 ± 3.4) and chronotropic effects (186.3 ± 4.2 versus 302 ± 6.3) in comparison to normal saline. Arrhythmogenic aspects including bradycardia, QRS widening and ST depression were induced by venom injection. Pre venom treatment (20 min) of Razi Institute antivenom (10 μl) neutralized cardiotropic effects but post venom injection (15 min later) had no therapeutic role. Pre (10 min before) and post (15 min after) injection of adrenaline (10 μl) neneutralized cardiotropic effects while pre venom injection (20 min) of propanolol (10 μl) had aggravating effects.Conclusion: Our study paves the way for further in vivo investigation of cardiovascular effects of this venom for finding suitable treatments instead of its ordinary antivenom medication in cardiogenic shock induced by the venom.


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How to Cite
Pourkhalili K, Kim E, Mashayekhy NR, Kamyab M, Hoseiny SM, Evazy R, Zare-Mirakabadi A, Seyedian R. Cardiotoxic and Arrhythmogenic Effects of Hemiscorpius lepturus Scorpion Venom in Rats. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 9(2):215-225.
Original Article