First Report of Target Site Insensitivity in Pyrethroid Resistant Anopheles gambiae from Southern Guinea Savanna, Northern-Nigeria
AbstractBackground: Malaria is a major public health problem and life threatening parasitic vector-borne disease. For the first time, we established and report the molecular mechanism responsible for Anopheles gambiae s.l. resistance to pyrethroids and DDT from Yamaltu Deba, Southern Guinea Savanna, Northern-Nigeria.Methods: The susceptibility profile of An. gambiae s.l. to four insecticides (DDT 4%, bendiocarb 0.1%, malathion 5% and deltamethrin 0.05%) using 2–3 days old females from larvae collected from study area between August and November, 2018 was first established. Genomic DNA was then extracted from 318 mosquitoes using Livak DNA extraction protocol for specie identification and kdr genotyping. The mosquitoes were identified to species level and then 96 genotyped for L1014F and L1014S kdr target site mutations.Results: The mosquitoes were all resistant to DDT, bendiocarb and deltamethrin but fully susceptible to malathion. An. coluzzii was found to be the dominant sibling species (97.8%) followed by An. arabiensis (1.9%) and An. gambiae s.s (0.3%). The frequency of the L1014F kdr mutation was relatively higher (83.3%) than the L1014S (39%) in the three species studied. The L1014F showed a genotypic frequency of 75% resistance (RR), 17% heterozygous (RS) and 8% susceptible (SS) with an allelic frequency of 87% RR and 13% SS while the L1014S showed a genotypic frequency of RR (16%), RS (38%) and SS (46%) with an allelic frequency of 40% RR and 60% SS, respectively.Conclusion: This study reveals that both kdr mutations present simultaneously in Northern-Nigeria, however contribution of L1014F which is common in West Africa was more than twice of L1014S mutation found in East Africa.
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