Determination of the Median Lethal Dose and Electrophoretic Pattern of Hottentotta saulcyi (Scorpiones, Buthidae) Scorpion Venom
AbstractBackground: In this study, we investigated the lethal potency, electrophoretic protein pattern and in vivo effects of Hottentotta saulcyi scorpion venom in mice.Methods: Scorpions were collected at night, by using a UV lamp from Mardin Province, Turkey. Venom was obtained from mature H. saulcyi scorpions by electrical stimulation of the telson. The lethality of the venom was determined by i.v. injections using Swiss mice. In vivo effects of the venom were assessed by using the intraperitoneal route (ip) injections into mice (20±1g) and monitored for 24 h. The protein profiles of the scorpion venom were analyzed by NuPAGE® Novex® 4–12 % gradient Bis-Tris gel followed by Coomassie blue staining.Results: The lethal assay of the venom was 0.73 mg/kg in mice. We determined the electrophoretic protein pattern of this scorpion venom to be 4, 6, 9, 31, 35, 40, 46 and 69 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Analysis of electrophoresis indicated that H. saulcyi scorpion intoxicated mice exhibited autonomic nervous system symptoms (tachypnea, restlessness, hyperexcitability, convulsions, salivation, lacrimation, weakness).Conclusions: Hottentotta saulcyi scorpion venom includes short-chain neurotoxins and long-chain neurotoxins according to the electrophoretic protein patterns. The stings of H. saulcyi scorpion must be considered of risk for humans in the southeastern region, Turkey.
Adam KR, Weiss C (1958) The occurrence of 5-Hydroxytryptamine in scorpion venom. J Exp Biol. 35(1): 39–42.
Adıguzel S, Özkan Ö, İnceoğlu B (2007) Epidemiological and clinical charac- teristics of scorpionism in children in Şanlıurfa, Turkey. Toxicon. 49(6):875–880.
Adıguzel S (2010) In vivo and in vitro effects of scorpion venoms in Turkey: a mini-review. J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis. 16(2): 198–111.
Al B, Yılmaz DA, Sögut O, Orak M, ÜstÜndağ M, Bokurt S (2009) Epi- demiological, clinical characteristics and outcome of scorpion envenomation in Batman, Turkey: an analysis of 120 cases. JAEM. 8(3): 9–14.
Altınkaynak S, Ertekin V, Alp H (2002) Scor-pion envenomation in children. Turk Arch Ped. 37(1): 48–54.
Behrens B, Karber C (1935) How arrange most convenient series of biological tests for evaluations, Archiv für Exp. Pathol. und Pharmak. 177: 379–388.
Boşnak M, Ece A, Yolbaş I, Boşnak V, Kaplan M, Gürkan F (2009) Scorpion sting envenomation in children in southeast Turkey. Wilderness Environ Med. 20(2): 118–124.
Crucitti P, Vignoli V (2002) The scorpions (Scorpiones) of South-Eastern Anatolia (Turkey). Boll. Mus. reg.i Sci. nat.i Torino. 19(2): 433–474.
Dehghani R, Djadid ND, Shahbazzadeh D, Bigdelli S (2009) Introducing Compso- buthus matthiesseni (Birula 1905) scorpion as one of the major stinging scorpions in Khuzestan, Iran. Toxicon.54: 272–275.
Dehghani R, Fathi B (2012) Scorpion sting in Iran: A review. Toxicon. 60: 919–933.
Fet V, Sissom WD, Lowe G, Braunwalder ME (2000) Catalog of the Scorpions of the World (1758–1998). The New York Entomological Society, New York.
Hassan F (1984) Production of Scorpion Antivenom. In, Tu, AT (Ed): Hand- book of Natural Toxins. Marcel Dekker, Inc, vol. 2. New York, pp. 577–605,Ismail M (1995) The scorpion envenoming syndrome. Toxicon. 33: 825–858.
Kovařík F (2007) A revision of the genus Hottentotta Birula, 1908, with des- criptions of four new species (Scor- piones, Buthidae). Euscorpius. 58: 1–109.
Kovařík F, Yağmur EA, Fet V, Navidpour S (2011) On two subspecies of Mesobuthus eupeus (C L Koch 1839) in Turkey (Scorpiones: Buthidae). Euscorpius. 109:1−15.
Laemmli K (1970) Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature. 227:680–685.
Latifi M, Tahatabai M (1979) Immunological studies on Iranian scorpion venom and antiserum. Toxicon. 17: 617–620.
Luca SM, Meier J (1995) Biology and Distribution of Scorpions of Medical Importance. In, Meier J, White J (Eds): Clinical Toxicology of Animal Venoms and Poisons, 1. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 205–219.
Özkan Ö, Filazi A (2004) The determination of acute lethal dose-50 (LD50) levels of venom in mice, obtained by dif-ferent methods from scorpions, Androctonus crassicauda (Oliver 1807). Acta Para- sitol. Turcica. 28(1): 50–53.
Özkan Ö, Kat I (2005) Mesobuthus eupeus scorpionism in Şanlıurfa region of Tur- key. J Venom Anim Toxins Inc Trop Dis. 11(4): 479–491.
Özkan Ö, Uzun R, AdIguzel S, Cesaretli Y, Ertek M (2008) Evaluation of scorpion sting incidence in Turkey. J Venom Anim Toxins Inc Trop Dis. 14(1):128–140.
Özkan Ö, Çiftçi G, Karaer Z (2011) Elec- trophoretical Comparison of Proteins of Mesobuthus eupeus and Mesobuthus gibbosus Scorpion Venoms. Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg. 17(A): 153–158.
Rein JO (2013) The scorpion files. http://w ww.ntnu.no/ub/scorpion-files/. Accessed 3rd December 2013.
Prendini L, Wheeler WC (2005) Scorpion higher phylogeny and classification, taxonomic anarchy, and standards for peer review in online publishing. Cla- distics. 21: 446–494.
Possani LD, Becerril B, Delepierre M, Tytgat J (1999) Scorpion toxins specific for Na+ channels. Eur J Biochem. 264:287–300.
Possani LD, Merino E, Corona M, Bolivar F, Becerril B (2000) Peptides and genes coding for scorpion toxins that affect ion-channels. Biochimie. 82: 861–868. Rodriguez de la Vega RC, Possani LD (2004) Current views on scorpion toxins specific for K+-channels. Toxicon. 43:865–875.
Rodriguez de la Vega RC, Possani LD (2005) Overview of scorpion toxins specific for Na+ channels and related peptides: biodiversity, structure–func- tion relationships and evolution. Toxicon.46(8): 831–844.
Shahbazzadeh D, Amirkhani A, Djadid ND, Bigdeli S, Akbari A, Ahari H, Amini H, Dehghani R (2009) Epidemiological and clinical survey of scorpionism in Khuzestan province, Iran. Toxicon. 53:454–459.
Soker M, Haspolat K (2000) Scorpion sting in children in the southeast of Turkey: a review of 64 cases. Çocuk Sağ. ve Hast.ı Der. 43(1): 43–50.
Soleglad ME, Fet V (2003) High-level sys- tematics and phylogeny of the extant scorpions Scorpiones: Orthosterni). Euscorpius. 11: 1–175.
Ucar G, Tas C, Tumer A (2005) Monoamine oxidase inhibitory activities of the scor- pion Mesobuthus gibbosus (Buthidae) venom peptides. Toxicon. 45(1): 42–43.
Yağmur EA, Koç H, Yalçın M (2008a) Distribution of Compsobuthus matthies- seni (Birula 1905) and Compsobuthus schmiedeknechti Vachon, 1949 (Scor- piones: Buthidae) in Turkey. Turk J of Arac. 1(1): 59–66.
Yağmur EA, Yalçın M, Çalışır G (2008b) Distribution of Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier 1807) and Buthacus macro- centrus (Ehrenberg 1828) (Scorpiones: Buthidae) in Turkey. Serket. 11(1): 13–18.
Yağmur EA, Koç K, Yalçın M (2008c) Dis- tribution of Hottentotta saulcyi (Simon 1880) (Scorpiones: Buthidae) in Tur- key. Euscorpius. 76: 1–8.
Copyright (c) 2015 Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.