The Phylogenetic Analysis of Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Isolated from Different Regions of Iran Using Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I Gene
AbstractBackground: Bedbugs are blood feeding ectoparasites of humans and several domesticated animals. There are scarcity of information about the bed bugs population throughout Iran and only very limited and local studies are available. The aim of this study is to assess the phylogenetic relationships and nucleotide diversity using partial sequences of cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) among the populations of tropical bed bugs inhabiting Iran.Methods: The bedbugs were collected from cities located in different geographical regions of Iran. After DNA extraction PCR was performed for COI gene using specific primers. Then DNA sequencing was performed on PCR products for the all 15 examined samples.Results: DNA sequencing analysis showed that the all C. hemipterus samples were similar, despite the minor nucleotide variations (within the range of 576 to 697bp) on average between 5 and 10 Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Subsequently, the results were compared with the database in gene bank which revealed close similarity and sequence homology with other C. hemipterus from other parts of the world.Conclusion: In conclusion, this study has demonstrated the ability of the COI gene to differentiate between the C. hemipterus populations from a few different locations in Iran. The current research is the first report of phylogenetic and genetic species diversity analysis conducted on C. hemipterus in Iran. These results provided basic information for further studies of molecular epidemiology, public health and pest control operators in Iran.
2. Karunaratne S, Damayanthi B, Fareena M, Fareena MHJ, Imbuldeniya V, Hem-ing¬way J (2007) Insecticide resistance in the tropical bedbug Cimex hemipter-us. Pest Biochem Physiol. 88(1): 102–107.
3. Cooper R, Harlan H (2004) Ectoparasites, part 3: bed bugs and kissing bug. Mal-lis’ handbook of pest control, Cleve-land. 2004(1): 494–529.
4. Goddard J, de-Shazo R (2009) Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) and clinical conse-quences of their bites. Jama. 301(13): 1358–1366.
5. Wang C, Tsai WT, Cooper R, White J (2011) Effectiveness of bed bug moni-tors for detecting and trapping bed bugs in apartments. J Econ Entomol. 104(1): 274–278.
6. Doggett SL, Dwyer DE, Peñas PF, Russell RC (2012) Bed bugs: clinical relevance and control options. Clin Microbiol Rev. 25(1): 164–192.
7. Elston D, Stockwell S (2000) What's eat-ing you? Bedbugs. Cutis. 65(5): 262–264.
8. Paul J, Bates J (2000) Is infestation with the common bedbug increasing? BMJ: Br Med J. 320 (7242): 1141.
9. Masetti M, Bruschi F (2007) Bedbug in-festations recorded in Central Italy. Parasitol Int. 56(1): 81–83.
10. Reinhardt K, Siva-Jothy MT (2007) Bi-ology of the bed bugs (Cimicidae). Annu Rev Entomol. 52(1): 351–374.
11. Hwang SW, Svoboda TJ, De-Jong IJ, Kabasele KJ, Gogosis E (2005) Bed bug infestations in an urban environ-ment. Emerg Infect Dis. 11(4): 533–538.
12. Cooper R (2006) Bed bugs--still more questions than answers: A need for re-search and public awareness. Am En-tomol. 52(2): 111–112.
13. Romero A, Potter MF, Potter DA, Haynes KF (2007) Insecticide re-sistance in the bed bug: a factor in the pest’s sudden resurgence? J Med En-tomol. 44(2): 175–178.
14. Doggett SL, Russell RC (2008) The re-surgence of bed bugs, Cimex spp. (He-miptera: Cimicidae) in Australia. Int Conf Urban Pests (ICUP). 6(1): 407–425.
15. Kilpinen O, Jensen KMV, Kristensen M (2008) Bed bug problems in Denmark, with a European perspective. Int Conf Urban Pests (ICUP). 1316(1): 395–399.
16. Wang L, Xu Y, Zeng L (2013) Resur-gence of bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimici-dae) in mainland China. Fla Entomol. 96(1): 131–136.
17. Haghi SFM, Behbodi M, Hajati H, Shafaroudi MM (2014) Prevalence of bed bug (Cimex lectularius) in human settlement area of Bahnamir, Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Dis. 4(2): 786–789.
18. Dehghani R, Asadi MA, Ahmadi M (1998) prevalence survey of bed bug infestation in residential homes in the villages of western Kashan. Feyz Sci J. 14(1): 71–76
19. Shahraki GH, Rayegan A, Fararouei M (2000) Prevalence of bed bug and its biting in student dormitories. J Yasuj Univers Med Sci. 5(19): 25–33
20. Dehghani R, Hashemi A, Takhtfiroozeh S, Chimehi E (2015) Bed bug (Cimex lectularis) outbreak: A cross-sectional study in Polour, Iran. Iran J Dermatol. 19(1): 16–20.
21. Tabachnick WJt, Black IW (1995) Mak-ing a case for molecular population ge-netic studies of arthropod vectors. Par-asitol Today. 11(1): 27–30.
22. Kress WJ, Erickson DL (2008) DNA barcodes: genes, genomics, and bioin-formatics. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 105(8): 2761–2762.
23. Endersby NM, Hoffman AA, White VL, Lowenstein S, Ritchie S, Johnson EH, Rapley LP, Ryan PA, Nam VS, Yen NT, Kittiyapong P, Weeks AR (2009) Genetic structure of Aedes aegypti in Australia and Vi¬etnam revealed by microsatellite and exon primed intron crossing markers suggests feasibility of local control op¬tions. J Med Entomol. 46(5): 1074–1083.
24. Crissman JRW, Booth RG, Santangelo DM, Mukha EL, Vargo EL, Schal C (2010) Population genetic structure of the German cockroach (Blattodea: Blat¬tellidae) in apartment buildings. J Med Entomol. 47(4): 553–564.
25. Booth W, Saenz VL, Santangelo RG, Wang C, Schal C, Vargo EL (2012) Mo¬lecular markers reveal infestation dy¬nam¬ics of the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimi¬cidae) within apartment buildings. J Med Entomol. 49(3): 535–546.
26. Pizarro JC, Gilligan LM, Stevens L (2008) Microsatellites reveal a high popula¬tion structure in Triatoma in-festans from Chu¬quisaca, Bolivia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2(3): 202.
27. Paup C, Brengues C, Kamgang B, Herve JP, Fontenille D, Simard F (2008) Gene ßow between domestic and syl¬van pop-ulations of Aedes aegypti (Dip¬tera: Cu-licidae) in North Cameroon. J Med En-tomol. 45(3): 391–400.
28. Perez de Rosas AR, Segura EL, Garcia BA (2007) Microsatellite analysis of ge¬netic structure in natural Triatoma in-festans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) pop-ulations from Argentina: its impli¬ca¬tion in assessing the effectiveness of Cha-gas disease vector control pro¬grammes. Mol Ecol. 16(7): 1401–1412.
29. Yoon KS, Kwon DH, Strycharz JP, Hol-lingsworth CS, Lee SH, Clark JM (2008) Biochemical and molecular analysis of deltamethrin resistance in the common bed bug (Hemip-tera:Cimicidae). J Med Entomol. 45(6): 1092–1101.
30. Szalanski AL, Austin JW, McKern JA, Steelman CD, Gold RE (2008) Mito-chondrial and ribosomal internal tran-scribed spacer 1 diversity of Cimex lec-tularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). J Med Entomol. 45(2): 229–236.
31. Vargo EL, Booth W, Saenz V, Santange-lo RG, Schal C (2011) Genetic analysis of bed bug infestations and popula-tions. Proceedings of the Seventh In-ternational Conference on Urban Pests.
32. Balvín O, Munclinger P, Kratochvíl L, Vilímová J (2012) Mitochondrial DNA and morphology show independent evolutionary histories of bedbug Cimex lectularius (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) on bats and humans. Parasitol Res. 111(1): 457–469.
33. Davies TGE, Field LM, Williamson MS (2012) The re-emergence of the bed bug as a nuisance pest: implications of resistance to the pyrethroid insecti-cides. Med Vet Entomol. 26(3): 241–254.
34. Booth W, Balvin O, Vargo EL, Vilímová J, Schal C (2015) Host association drives genetic divergence in the bed bug, Ci¬mex lectularius. Mol Ecol. 24(5): 980–992.
35. Skerman K, Hillard J (1967) A handbook for studies of helminth parasites of ru-minants. FAO, Near East Anim Health Inst. 2(1): 1–3.
36. Walpole D (1987) External morphology of the legs of two species of bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). J Entomol Soc South Afr. 50(1): 193–201.
37. Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Plewniak F, Jeanmougin F, Higgins DG (1997) The CLUSTAL_X windows interface: flex-ible strategies for multiple sequence align¬ment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res. 25(24): 4876–4882.
38. Hall TA (1999) BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/ NT. Nucleic acids symposium series, [London]: Information Retrieval Ltd., c1979-c2000. 41(1): 95–98.
39. Schuh RT, Weirauch C, Wheeler WC (2009) Phylogenetic relationships with-in the Cimicomorpha (Hemiptera: Het-eroptera): a total evidence analysis. Sys Entomol. 34(1): 15–48.
40. Kocher A, Guilbert E, Lhuillier E, Muri-enne J (2015) Sequencing of the mito-chondrial genome of the avocado lace bug Pseudacysta perseae (Heteroptera, Tingidae) using a genome skimming approach. CR Biol. 338(3): 149–160.
41. Cui Y, Xie Q, Hua J, Dang K, Zhou J, Liu X, Wang G, Yu X, Bu W (2013) Phylogenomics of Hemiptera (Insecta: Paraneoptera) based on mitochondrial genomes. Sys Entomol. 38(1): 233–245.
42. Hebert PD, Penton EH, Burns JM, Jan-zen DH, Hallwachs W (2004) Ten spe-cies in one: DNA barcoding reveals cryptic species in the neotropical skip-per butterfly Astraptes fulgerator. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 101(41): 14812–14817.
43. Ballard JWO, Rand DM (2005) The pop-ulation biology of mitochondrial DNA and its phylogenetic implica¬tions. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst. 36(1): 621–642.
44. Tawatsin A, Lorlertthum K, Phumee A, Thavara U, Boon-Long J, Boonserm R, Siriyasatien P (2013) Discrimination be¬tween tropical bed bug Cimex he-mip¬terus and common bed bug Cimex lec¬tularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) by PCR-RFLP. Thai J Vet Med. 43(3): 421–427.
45. Seri Masran SNA, Ab-Majid AH (2017) Genetic diversity and phylogenetic re-lationships of Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I in Cimex hemipterus (Hemip-tera: Cimicidae) populations in Malay-sia. J Med Entomol. 54(4): 974–979.
46. Delaunay P, Blanc V, Del Giudice P, Levy-Bencheton A, Chosidow O, Marty P, Brouqui P (2011) Bedbugs and in¬fectious diseases. Clin Infect Dis. 52 (2): 200–210.
47. Ryan ET, Wilson ME, Kain KC (2002) Illness after international travel. New Engl J Med. 347: 505–516.
48. Naddaf SR, Oshaghi MA, Vatandoost H, Assmar M (2003) Molecular character¬ization of Anopheles fluviatilis species complex in the Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 9 (3): 257–265.
49. Sedaghat MM, Vonne-marie Y, Ni¬coles-cuz G, Koliopoulos G, Athanassi¬os K, Zounos K, Oshaghi MA, Vatan¬doost H, Harbach R (2003) Morpho¬logical and molecular characterization of Anoph¬eles (Anopheles) sacharovi Favre, a pri¬mary vector of malaria in the Middle East. Syst Entomol. 28: 241–256.
50. Barghamadi Z, Moosa-kazemi SH, Oshaghi MA, Vatandoost H, Shahraki G (2016) species identification of the Anopheles fluviatilis complex using phylogene-tic analysis PCR-sequencing in southwest¬ern Iran. Acta Med Mediterr. 32: 2069.
51. Sedaghat MM, Linton YM, Oshaghi MA, Vatandoost H, Harbach RE (2003) The Anopheles maculipennis complex (Dip¬tera: Culicidae) in Iran: molecular char¬acterization and recog-nition of a new species. Bull Entomol Res. 93(6): 527–535.
52. Khoshdel-Nezamiha F, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Azari-Hamidian S, Mi-anroodi RA, Dabiri F (2016) Molecular characterization of mosquitoes (Dip-tera: Culicidae) in Northwestern Iran by using rDNA-ITS2. Jpn J Infect Dis. 69(4): 319–322.
53. Oshaghi MA, Sedaghat MM, Vatandoost H (2003) Molecular characterization of the Anopheles maculipennis complex in the Islamic Republic of Iran. East Med-iterr Health J. 9(4): 659–566.
54. Karimian F, Ali Oshaghi MA, Sedaghat MM, Waterhouse ME, Vatandoost H, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Maleki Ravasan N, Chavshin AR (2014) Phylogenetic anal¬ysis of the oriental-palearctic-afrotropi¬cal members of Anopheles (Culicidae: Diptera) Based on Nuclear rDNA and Mitochondrial DNA Char-acteristics. Jpn J Infect Dis. 67: 361–367.
55. Oshaghi MA, Yaghoobi F, Vatandoost H, Abai MR, Akbarzadeh K (2006) Anopheles stephensi biological forms: Geographical distribution and malaria transmission in malarious regions of Iran. Pak Bio Sci. 9 (2): 294–298.
56. Chavshin AR, Oshaghi MA, Vatandoost H, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Raeisi A, Nikpoor F (2014) Molecular characterization, bi-ological forms and sporozoite rate of Anopheles stephensi in southern Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 4(1): 47–51.
57. Mehravaran A, Oshaghi MA, Vatandoost H, Abai MR, Ebrahimzadeh A, Mo-azeni Roodib A, Gorouhi A (2011) First re¬port on Anopheles fluviatilis U in south¬eastern Iran. Acta Trop. 117(2): 76–81.
58. Oshaghi MA, Shemshad KH, Yaghobi-Ershadi MR, Pedram M, Vatandoost H, Abai MR, Akbarzadeh K, Mohtarami F (2007) Genetic structure of the malaria vector Anopheles superpictus in Iran using mitochondrial cytochrome oxi¬dase (COI and COII) and morphologic markers: A new species complex? Ac¬ta Trop. 101(3): 241–248.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.