Larvicidal Activity of Elytraria acaulis against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

  • Soorya Sukumaran Department of Zoology, Entomology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Periyar University, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India
  • Rajan Maheswaran Mail Department of Zoology, Entomology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Periyar University, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India
Elytraria acaulis; Larvicidal activity; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti, Elytraria acaulis, Larvicidal activity, Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti


Background: Mosquitoes are blood sucking arthropods and serve as vectors of many diseases causing serious health problems to human beings. Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti were responsible for Filariasis and Dengue. Syn­thetic pesticides were effective against mosquitoes as well as main sources of environmental pollution and most of them are immunosuppressant. Botanicals were widely used as insecticides, growth disruptors, repellents, etc. The aim of this research was to determine larvicidal properties of powdered leaf, Elytraria acaulis against late third or early fourth in­star larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti.Methods: Larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti were tested at various concentrations of 100, 120, 140, 160, 180 and 200mg/100ml and mortality was recorded after 24h. The LC50 values of the E. acaulis leaf powder were calcu­lated by Probit analysis.Results: The plant powder exhibited strong larvicidal activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus with LC50 value of 116.07mg/100ml against Ae. aegypti 124.25mg/100ml respectively. The result indicated that the plant powder of E. acaulis showed potential larvicidal activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti.Conclusion: The overall findings of the present investigation suggested that the E. acaulis highly effective against Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti larvae. Elytraria acaulis may be used as an alternative to synthetic chemical pesticides for control of vectors to reduce vector borne diseases and did not harm to total environment.


1. James AA (1992) Mosquito molecular genetics: the hands that feed bite back. Sci. 257: 37–38.
2. Peng Z, Yang J, Wang H, Simons FER (1999) Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to two new mosquito Aedes aegypti salivary proteins. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 29: 909–914.
3. Bernhard L, Bernhard P, Magnussen P (2003) Management of patients with lymphoedema caused by filariasis in North-eastern Tanzania: alternative ap-proaches. Physiotheraphy. 89: 743–749.
4. Ramaiah KD, Eric AO (2014) Progress and impact of 13 years of the global pro-gramme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis on reducing the burden of filarial disease. PLOS Negl Trop Dis. 8: 3319.
5. Richard HF, David RC (1959) Mosquitos of Medical Importance. U.S. Depart-ment of Agriculture, Washington D.C.
6. Simoy MI, Simoy MV, Canziani GA (2015) The effect of temperature on the population dynamics of Aedes aegypti. Ecol Model. 24: 100–110.
7. Kabra SK, Verma IC, Arora NK, Jain Y, Kalra V (1992) Dengue hemorrhagic fe-ver in children in Delhi. Bull World Health Org. 70(1): 105–108.
8. Agarwal R, Kapoor S, Nagar R, Misra A, Tandon R, Mathur A, Misra AK, Srivasta¬va KL, Chaturvedi UC (1999) A clin¬ical study of the patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever during the epidemic of 1996 at Lucknow, India. South¬east Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 30(4): 735–740.
9. Kabra SK, Jain Y, Pandey RM, Madhulika, Singhal T, Tripathi P, Broor S, Seth P, Seth V (1999) Dengue hemorrhagic fe-ver in children in the 1996 Delhi epi-demic. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 93(3): 294–298.
10. Dar L, Broor S, Sengupta S, Xess I, Seth P (1999) The first major outbreak of den¬gue hemorrhagic fever in Delhi, In-dia. Emerg Infect Dis. 5(4): 589–590.
11. Ram S, Khurana S, Kaushal V, Gupta R, Khurana SB (1998) Incidence of dengue fever in relation to climatic factors in Lu¬dhiana, Punjab. Indian J Med Res. 108: 128–133.
12. Ilkal MA, Dhanda V, Hassan MM, Mava-le M, Mahadev PV, Shetty PS, Guttikar SN, Banerjee K (1991) Entomological in¬vestigations during outbreaks of den-gue fever in certain villages in Maha-rashtra state. Indian J Med Res. 93: 174–178.
13. Mahadev PV, Kollali VV, Rawal ML, Pu-jara PK, Shaikh BH, Ilkal MA, Pathak V, Dhanda V, Rodrigues FM, Banerjee K (1993) Dengue in Gujarat state, India during 1988 and 1989. Indian J Med Res. 97: 135–144.
14. Norman G, Theodre A, Joseph A (1991) An insular outbreak of dengue fever in a rural south Indian village. J Commun Dis. 23(3): 185–190.
15. Singh J, Balakrishnan N, Bhardwaj M, Amuthadevi P, George EG, Subramani K, Soundararajan K, Appavoo NC, Jain DC, Ichhpujani RL, Bhatia R, Sokhey J (2000) Silent spread of dengue and den-gue hem¬orrhagic fever to Coimbatore and Erode districts in Tamil Nadu, In-dia, 1998: need for effective surveillance to monitor and control the disease. Epidemiol Infect. 125 (1): 195–200.
16. Cherian T, Ponnuraj E, Kuruvilla T, Kiruba¬karan C, John TJ, Raghupathy P (1994) An epidemic of dengue hemor-rhagic fever and dengue shock syn-drome in and around Vellore. Indian J Med Res. 100: 51–56.
17. Abdul KM, Kandaswamy P, Appavoo NC (1997) Outbreak and control of dengue in a village in Dharmapuri, Tamil Nadu. J Commun Dis. 29(1): 69–71.
18. Vega-Rúa A, Lourenço-de-Oliveira R, Mous¬son L, Vazeille M, Fuchs S, Yébakima A, Gustave J, Girod R, Dusfour I, Leparc-Goffart I, Van-landingham DL, Huang YJS, Lounibos LP, Ali SM, Nougairede A, Lam¬ballerie X, Failloux AB (2015) Chikungu¬nya vi-rus transmission potential by local Aedes mosquitoes in the Americas and Europe. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 9 (5): 1–18.
19. Pushpanathan T, Jebanesan A, Govindara-jan M (2008) The essential oil of Zingi-ber officinalis Linn. (Zingiberaceae) as a mosquito larvicidal and repellent agent against the filarial vector Culex quinque-fasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Para-sitol Res. 102(6): 1289–1291.
20. Rajkumar S, Jebanesan A (2005) Oviposi-tion deterrent and skin repellent activi-ties of Solanum trilobatum leaf extract against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi. J Insect Sci. 5: 15.
21. Maheswaran R, Ignacimuthu S (2015) Ef-fect of confertifolin from Polygonum hy¬dropiper L. against dengue vector mosquitoes Aedes aegypti L. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 22(11): 8280–8287.
22. Govindarajan M, Rajeswary M (2015) Ovi¬cidal and adulticidal potential of leaf and seed extract of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. (Family: Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Cu-licidae). Parasitol Res. 114(5): 1949–1961.
23. Maheswaran R, Sathish S, Ignacimuthu S (2008) Larvicidal activity of Leucus aspera (Willd.) against the larvae of Cu-lex quin¬quefasciatus Say and Aedes ae-gypti L. Int J Integ Biol. 2(3): 214–217.
24. Benelli G (2015) Research in mosquito control: current challenges for a brighter fu-ture. Parasitol Res. 114(8): 2801–2805.
25. Ravikanth V, Ramesh P, Diwan PV, Venkateswarlu Y (2001) Pyrazole alkaloids from Elytraria acaulis. Biochem Syst Ecol. 29(7): 753–754.
26. Krishna GRD (2013) Hypoglycemic activ-ity of extracts from Elytraria acaulis L. leaves in alloxan- induced diabetic rats. Biolife, 1: 11–16.
27. Kowsalya V (2012) Antibacterial activity of honey and Elytraria acaulis against bacteria isolated from burnt wound sep-sis. J Pharm Biol Sci. 1(5): 1–20.
28. Koshy RK, Kapoor BR, Azmathulla M (2011) Acute and subacute toxicity of meth¬anol extract of Elytraria acaulis lan¬dau in rat. Pharmacology online. 3: 229–242.
29. Patil PB, Holihosur SN, Kallapur VL (2006) Efficacy of natural product, Clerodendron inerme against dengue mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. Curr Sci. 90(8): 1064–1066.
30. World Health Organization (1992) Lym-phatic filariasis: the disease and its con-trol. Fifth report of the expert committee on filariasis. WHO Technical Report Se-ries. 821: 1–71.
31. Mandava NB (1985) The chemistry of al-lopathy, biochemical interactions among plants. Thomson AC (Ed) ACS sympo-sium series 268, Am Chem Soc Wash-ington, pp. 33–54.
32. Kehail MAA, Bashir NHH, Abdelrahman EE, Abdelrahim AM (2017) Larvicidal activity of three plants powders and aque¬ous extracts on Anopheles and Cu-lex mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae). Int J Mosq Res. 4(4): 37–41.
33. Kiruthika N, Dhivya R, Kalaiselvi K, Kan-imozhi P, Panneerselvam K (2012) Phy-tochemical studies on Elytraria acaulis. Int J Pharm Bio Sci. 3(3): 1054–1062.
34. Shanmugapriya R, Maheswaran R, Igna-cimuthu S (2015) Bauhinia variegata L. and Croton sparsiflorus L. against the lar¬vae of Aedes aegypti L. J Zool Sci. 3(2): 1–4.
35. Rajiv Gandhi M, Daniel Reegan A, Si-vasan¬karan K, Gabriel Paulraj M, Igna-cimuthu S (2016) Ovicidal and larvicid¬al activities of some plant extracts against Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Cu-licidae). Asian Pac J. Trop Dis. 6(6): 468–471.
36. Kumar MS, Maneemegalai S (2008) Eval-uation of larvicidal effect of Lantana camara Linn. against mos¬quito species Ae¬des aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Adv Biol Res. 2: 39–43.
37. Dhandapani A, Kadarkarai M (2011) HPTLC quantification of flavo¬noids, lar¬vicidal and smoke repellent ac¬tivities of Cassia occidentalis L. (Caes-alpiniaceae) against malarial vec-tor Anopheles stephen¬si Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). J Phytol. 3: 60–72.
38. Tedeschi P, Leis M, Pezzi M, Civolani S, Maietti A, Brandolini V (2011) Insecti-cidal activity and fungi¬toxicity of plant extracts and compo¬nents of horseradish (Armoracia rusti¬cana) and garlic (Allium sativum). J Environ Sci Health B. 46: 486–490.
39. Elimam AM, Elmalik KH, Ali FS (2009) Larvicidal, adult emergence inhibition and oviposition deterrent effects of foliage extract from Ricinus communis L. against Anopheles ara-biensis and Culex quinquefasciatus in Sudan. Trop Biomed. 26: 130–139.
40. Hajiakjoondi A, Aghel N, Xamanizadeh-Nadgar N, Vatandoost H (2008) Chemical and biological study of Mentha spicata L. essential oil from Iran. Daru. 8 (1–2): 19–21.
41. Hadjiakhoondi A, Vatandoost H, Jam-shidi AH, Bagherj Amiri E (2003) Chemical constituents and efficacy of Cymbopogon olivieri (Boiss) bar essential oil against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi. Daru. 11(3): 125–128.
42. Vatandoost H, MoinVaziri V (2004) Lar-vicidal activity of a neem tree extract (Neemarin) against mosquito larvae in the Islamic Republic of Iran. East Medi-terr Health J. 10(4/5): 573–581.
43. Hadjiakhoondi A, Vatandoost H, Kha¬navi M, Sadeghipour-Roodsari HR, Vosoughi M, Kazemi M, Abai MR (2006) Fatty acid composition and toxicity of Me¬lia azedarach L. Fruits against Malaria Vec¬tor Anopheles stephensi. Iran J Phar¬ma¬ceuti¬cal Sci. 2(2): 97–102.
44. Hajiakhondi A, Vatandoost H, Abousa¬ber H, Khanavai M, Abdi L (2008) Chemi-cal composition of the essential oil of Taget¬es minuta L and its effect on Anoph¬eles ste¬phensi larvae in Iran. J Med Plants. 7(26): 33–39.
45. Shahi M, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Iranshahi M, Vatandoost H, Hanafi-Bojd MY (2010) Lar¬vicidal efficacy of latex and extract of Calotropis procera (Gentianales: Ascle¬pia¬daceae) against Culex quinquefascia¬tus and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Cu¬licidae). J Vector Borne Dis. 47(3): 185–188.
46. Sedaghat MM, Sanei-Dehkhordi AR, Kha¬navi M, Abai MR, Hadjiiakhondi A, Moh¬tarami F, Vatandoost H (2010) Phy-to¬chem¬istry and larvicidal activity of Eu¬calyptus camaldulensis against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi. Asian Pa¬cific J Trop Med. 3(11): 841–845.
47. Sedaghat MM, Sanei-Dehkordi AR, Kha-navi M, Abai MR, Mohtarami F, Vatan-doost H (20110) Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Cupres¬sus arizona E.L. Greene against malaria vec¬tor Anopheles stephensi Lis-ton (Diptera: Cu¬licidae). Pharmacognosy Res. 3(2): 135–139.
48. Khanavi M, Rajabi A, Behzad M, Hadji-akhoon¬di A, Vatandoost H, Abai MR (2011) Larvicidal activity of Centaurea bruguierana ssp. belangerana against Anopheles stephensi Larvae. Iran J Phar-ma¬ceutical Res. 10(4): 829–833.
49. Khanavi M, Alireza F, Vatandoost H, Sed¬aghat MM, Abai MR, Hadjiakhoondi A (2012) Larvicidal activity of essential oil and methanol extract of Nepeta men¬thoides against malaria vector, Anophe¬les stephensi. Asian Pacific J Trop Med. 4(1): 962–965.
50. Vatandoost H, Sanei-Dehkordi A, Sadeghi SM, Davari B, Karimian F, Abai MR, Sedaghat AA (2012) Identification of chemical constituents and larvicidal ac-tivity of Kelussia odoratissima Mozaf-farian essential oil against two mosquito vectors Anopheles stephensi and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Experimental Parasitol. 132(4): 470–474.
51. Khanavi M, Vatandoost H, Dehaghi NK, Sanei-Dehkordi A, Sedaghat MM, Hadjiakhoondi A, Hadjiakhoondi F (2013) Larvicidal activity of some Iranian plants against malaria vector An. stephensi. Acta Medica Iranica. 51(3): 141–147.
52. Mozaffari E, Abai MR, Khanavi M, Vatan¬doost H, Sedaghat MM, Sanei-Dehkordi A, Rafi F (2014) Chemical composition, larvicidal and repellent properties of Cionura erecta (L.) Griseb. against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 8(2): 147–155.
53. Golfakhrabadi F, Khanavi M, Ostad SN, Saeidnia S, Vatandoost H, Abai MR, Hafizi M, Yousefbeyk F, Razzaghi-Rad Y, Ameneh Baghenegadian A, Shams-Ardekani MR (2015) Biological activities and composition of Ferulago cardu-chorum essential oil. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 9(1): 104–115.
54. Sanei-Dehkordi A, Vatandoost H, Abai MR, Davari B, Sedaghat M (2016) Chem¬ical composition and larvicidal activity of Bunium persicum essential oil against two important mosquito vectors. J Essent Oil-Bear Plants. 19(2): 49–357.
55. Torabi Pour H, Shayeghi M, Vatandoost H, Abai MR (2016) Study on larvicidal ef¬fects of essential oils of three Iranian native plants against larvae of Anopheles stephensi (Liston). Vector Biol J. 1(2): 2–6.
How to Cite
Sukumaran S, Maheswaran R. Larvicidal Activity of Elytraria acaulis against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). J Arthropod Borne Dis. 14(3):293–301.
Short Communication