Spatial Distribution, Seasonal Abundance and Physio-Chemical Assessment of Mosquito Larval Breeding Sites in Mardan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Background: Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are haemotophagus insects and are vectors of many arthropod-borne diseases. Present study aimed to explore species composition, seasonal abundance, spatial distribution and physio-chemical properties of larval breeding sites of mosquitoes in District Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Methods: Both adults and larvae of mosquitoes were collected through light traps, insecticide spray, mouth aspirator and larval standard dipping method in District Mardan from May to November 2017. Water samples from larval sites were physio-chemically analysed.
Results: 5078 (3704 adults and 1374 larvae) mosquito specimens were collected in Mardan, Katlang and Takhtbhai tehsils. Six species in four genera were reported. Culex pipiens (89.80%) and Armigeres subalbatus (9.20%) were the most abundant species. Diversity was high in Takhtbhai (0.29) followed by Katlang (0.28) and Mardan (0.25). Greater number of specimens were recorded in peridomestic sites (93.97%) as compared to domestic habitats (6.03%). Culex pipiens larval abundance had negative correlation with pH whereas it correlated positively with electric conductivity, salinity, and TDS (total dissolved sulphur). Mosquito abundance peaked in August and July while the lowest was in May. Their monthly abundance had positive correlation with rainfall (r= 0.5069), relative humidity (r= 0.4439) and mean minimum temperature (r= 0.2866). Number of mosquitoes was highest at low elevation < 347m asl (above sea level) in agriculture land and near to water bodies (streams).
Conclusion: Culex pipiens being the most abundant species, was susceptible to high pH. Mosquitoes preferred habitats were at low elevation in agriculture land.
2. Ali N, Rasheed SB (2009) Determination of species composition of mosquitoes found in Palosai stream, Peshawar. Pak Entomol. 31(1): 47–51.
3. Santos FAL, Jacobina ACM, de Oliveira MM, Santana MBA, Serra OP, Gonçalves AV, Garcêz ARS, Thies SF, Dez-engrini R, de Oliveira Dantas ES (2017) Species composition and fauna distribution of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and its importance for vector-borne dis-eases in a rural area of Central Western-Mato Grosso, Brazil. EntomoBrasilis. 10 (2): 94–105.
4. Braks M, Medlock JM, Hubalek Z, Hjertqvist M, Perrin Y, Lancelot R, Duchyene E, Hendrickx G, Stroo A, Heyman P, Sprong H (2014) Vector-borne disease intelligence: strategies to deal with disease burden and threats. Front Public Health. 2: 280.
5. Cornel AJ, Lee Y, Almeida APG, Johnson T, Mouatcho J, Venter M, De Jager C, Braack L (2018) Mosquito community composition in South Africa and some neighboring countries. Parasit Vectors. 11(1): 331.
6. Rueda LM, Brown TL, Kim HC, Chong ST, Klein TA, Foley DH, Anyamba A, Smith M, Pak EP, Wilkerson RC (2010) Species composition, larval habitats, seasonal occurrence and distribution of potential malaria vectors and associated species of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Republic of Korea. Malar J. 9: 55.
7. Linthicum KJ, Bailey CL, Davies FG, Tucker CJ (1987) Detection of Rift Valley fever viral activity in Kenya by satellite remote sensing imagery. Science. 235 (4796): 1656–1659.
8. Mahmood F, Sakai R, Akhtar K (1984) Vector incrimination studies and observations on species A and B of the taxon Anopheles culicifacies in Pakistan. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 78(5): 607–616.
9. Pervez S, Shah I (1989) Role of Anopheles stephensi as malaria vector in rural areas of Pakistan. Pak J Health. 26: 73–84.
10. Reisen WK, Boreham PF (1982) Estimates of malaria vectorial capacity for Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles stephensi in rural Punjab Province, Pakistan. J Med Entomol. 19(1): 98–103.
11. Aslamkhan M (1972) The Mosquitoes of Pakistan l/II. Mosquitoes Originally Described from Pakistan. Mosquito System. 4(4): 98–102.
12. Khan GZ, Khan IA, Khan I, Inayatullah M (2014) Outdoor breeding of mosquito species and its potential epidemiological implications in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Pak J Agric Sci. 27(4). 303–311.
13. Silver JB (2008) Sampling the larval population. Mosquito ecology: field sampling methods. pp. 137–338.
14. Barraud PJ (1934) The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Diptera. Vol. 5. Family Culieldae. Tribes Megarhinini and Culicini. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma Diptera Vol 5 Family Culieldae Tribes Megarhinini and Culicini.
15. Christophers SR (1933) The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Diptera. Vol. IV. Family Culicidae. Tribe Anophelini. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma Diptera Vol 4 Family Culicidae Tribe Anophelini.
16. Ashfaq M, Hebert PD, Mirza JH, Khan AM, Zafar Y, Mirza MS (2014) Analyzing mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) diversity in Pakistan by DNA barcoding. PLoS One. 9(5): e97268.
17. Chan YC, Salahuddin NI, Khan J, Tan HC, Seah CL, Li J, Chow VT (1995) Dengue haemorrhagic fever outbreak in Karachi, Pakistan, 1994. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 89(6): 619–620.
18. Stark K, Schöneberg I (2012) Increase in malaria cases imported from Pakistan to Germany in 2012. Euro surveill. 17(47): 20320.
19. LaDeau SL, Leisnham PT, Biehler D, Bodner D (2013) Higher mosquito production in low-income neighborhoods of Baltimore and Washington, DC: understanding ecological drivers and mosquito-borne disease risk in temperate cities. Int J Environ Res Public Health.10(4): 1505–1526.
20. Mwangangi JM, Mbogo CM, Orindi BO, Muturi EJ, Midega JT, Nzovu J, Ga¬takaa H, Githure J, Borgemeister C, Keating J, Beier JC (2013) Shifts in malaria vector species composition and transmission dynamics along the Kenyan coast over the past 20 years. Malar J. 12: 13.
21. Engler O, Savini G, Papa A, Figuerola J, Groschup MH, Kampen H, Medlock J, Vaux A, Wilson AJ, Werner D (2013) European surveillance for West Nile virus in mosquito populations. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 10(10): 4869–4895.
22. Ma M, Huang M, Leng P (2016) Abundance and distribution of immature mosquitoes in urban rivers proximate to their larval habitats. Acta tropica. 163: 121–129.
23. Akram W, Hafeez F, ULLAH UN, KIM YK, Hussain A, LEE JJ (2009) Seasonal distribution and species composition of daytime biting mosquitoes. Entomol Res. 39(2): 107–113.
24. Chathuranga W, Karunaratne S, Fernando B, De Silva WPP (2018) Diversity, distribution, abundance, and feeding pat-tern of tropical ornithophilic mosquitoes. J Vector Ecol. 43(1): 158–167.
25. Wharton Rt (1962) The Biology of Mansonia Mosquitoes in relation to the Transmission of Filariasis in Malaya. Bull Inst Med Res Kuala Lumpur. 11: 1–114.
26. Liu H, Lu HJ, Liu ZJ, Jing J, Ren JQ, Liu YY, Lu F, Jin NY (2013) Japanese encephalitis virus in mosquitoes and swine in Yunnan province, China 2009–2010. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 13(1): 41–49.
27. Cheong WH, Mak JW, Naidu S, Mahadevan S (1981) Armigeres subalbatus incriminated as an important vector of the dog heartworm Dirofilaria immitis and the bird Cardiofilaria in urban Kuala Lumpur. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 12(4): 611–612.
28. Gratz N (2004) Critical review of the vec-tor status of Aedes albopictus. Med Vet Entomol. 18(3): 215–227.
29. Barnett HC (1967) Taxonomic complexes of arbovirus vectors. Taxonomic complexes of arbovirus vectors. Jpn J Med Sci Biol. 20 suppl: 19–20.
30. Thongsripong P, Green A, Kittayapong P, Kapan D, Wilcox B, Bennett S (2013) Mosquito vector diversity across habitats in central Thailand endemic for dengue and other arthropod-borne diseases. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 7(10): e2507.
31. Andreadis TG, Anderson JF, Vossbrinck CR, Main AJ (2004) Epidemiology of West Nile virus in Connecticut: a five year analysis of mosquito data 1999–2003. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 4(4): 360–378.
32. Harbach RE (2012) Culex pipiens: species versus species complex taxonomic history and perspective. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 28(4s): 10–23.
33. Cross ER, Newcomb WW, Tucker CJ (1996) Use of weather data and remote sensing to predict the geographic and seasonal distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi in southwest Asia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 54(5): 530–536.
34. Attaullah MKZ, Nasir S, Rasool B, Sultana K, Qamar S, Majeed HN (2015) Assessment of diversity and abundance of Mosquitoes from rural areas of Faisal-abad. J Biodivers Environ Sci. 7(1): 77–87.
35. Pelizza S, Lastra CL, Becnel J, Bisaro V, Garcia J (2007) Effects of temperature, pH and salinity on the infection of Leptolegnia chapmanii Seymour (Perono¬spo-romycetes) in mosquito larvae. J Invertebr Pathol. 96(2): 133–137.
36. Sattler MA, Mtasiwa D, Kiama M, Premji Z, Tanner M, Killeen GF, Lengeler C (2005) Habitat characterization and spatial distribution of Anopheles sp. mosquito larvae in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) during an extended dry period. Malar J. 4: 4.
37. Webb B, Walling D (1992) Water quality II. Chemical characteristics. In the Rivers Handbook Hydrological and Eco-logical Principles.(Eds P. Calow and GE Petts.) Blackwell Science: Oxford. pp. 73–100.
38. Khan K, Wahid S, Khan NH, Shah SU, Atta-Ur-Rahman, Sarwar B, Ali N (2018) Geospatial and climatic patterns associated with the distribution of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors of leishmaniasis in Pakistan. J Med Entomol. 55(3): 626–633.
39. Kitron U (1998) Landscape ecology and epidemiology of vector-borne diseases: tools for spatial analysis. J Med Entomol. 35(4): 435–445.
|Issue||Vol 16 No 1 (2022)|
|Diptera Culicidae Takhtbhai Temperature Salinity|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|