Molecular Detection of Leishmania major and L. turanica in Phlebotomus papatasi and First Natural Infection of P. salehi to L. major in North-east of Iran

  • Sayena Rafizadeh Department of Biochemistry and Genetic, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran
  • Mehrzad Saraei Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran
  • Mohammad Reza Abaei Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Mohammad Ali Oshaghi Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Mehdi Mohebali Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Amir Peymani Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran
  • Taghi Naserpour-Farivar Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran
  • Hassan Bakhshi Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Yavar Rassi Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Keywords:
Leishmania major, L. turanica, P. salehi, Phlebotomus papatasi, Iran

Abstract

Background: Leishmaniasis is an important public health disease in many developing countries as well in Iran. The main objective of this study was to investigate on leishmania infection of wild caught sand flies in an endemic focus of disease in Esfarayen district, north east of Iran.Methods: Sand flies were collected by sticky papers and mounted in a drop of Puri’s medium for species identification. Polymerase chain reaction techniques of kDNA, ITS1-rDNA, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism were used for identification of DNA of Leishmania parasites within infected sand flies.Results: Among the collected female sand flies, two species of Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus salehi were found naturally infected with Leishmania major. Furthermore, mixed infection of Leishmania turanica and L. major was observed in one specimen of P. papatasi. Sequence analysis revealed two parasite ITS1 haplotypes including three L. major with accession numbers: KJ425408, KJ425407, KM056403 and one L. turanica. (KJ425406). The haplotype of L. major was identical (100%) to several L. major sequences deposited in GenBank, including isolates from Iran, (Gen Bank accession nos.AY573187, KC505421, KJ194178) and Uzbekistan (Accession no.FN677357).Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first detection of L. major within wild caught P. salehi in north- east of Iran.

References

Alvar J, Yactayo S, Bern C (2006) Leish- maniasis and poverty. Trends in par- asitology. 22(12): 552–557.

Alvar J, Velez ID, Bern C, Herrero M, Desjeux P, Cano J, Jannin J, den Boer M (2012) Leishmaniasis world- wide and global estimates of its incidence. Plos. 7(5): e35671.

Afshar AA, Rassi Y, Sharifi I, Abai MR, Oshaghi M, Yaghoobi-Ershadi M, Vatandoost H (2011) Susceptibility status of Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti (Diptera: Psychodidae) to DDT and deltamethrin in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis after earth- quake strike in Bam, Iran. Iran J Ar- thropod Borne Dis. 5(2): 32–41.

Azizi K, Fakoorziba M, Jalali M, Moemenbel- lah-Fard M (2012) First molecular detection of Leishmania major with- in naturally infected Phlebotomus salehi from a zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in southern Iran. Trop Biomed. 29(1): 1–8.

Bakhshi H, Oshaghi MA, Abai MR, Rassi Y, Akhavan AA, Sheikh Z, Mohtarami F, Saidi Z, Mirzajani H, Anjomruz M ( 2013) Molecular detection of Leish- mania infection in sand flies in bor- der line of Iran-Turkmenistan: re- stricted and permissive vectors. Exp Parasitol. 135(2): 382–387.

De Bruijn MH, Barker DC (1992) Diagnosis of new world leishmaniasis: specific detection of species of the Leishma- nia brasiliensis complex by amplifi- cation of kinetoplast DNA. Acta Trop. 52: 5–58.

Desjeux P (2001) The increase in risk factors for leishmaniasis worldwide. Trans- actions Royal Soc Trop Med Hyg.95(3): 239–243.

Dobson DE, Kamhawi S, Lawyer P, Turco SJ, Beverley SM, Sacks DL (2010) Leishmania major survival in selec- tive Phlebotomus papatasi sand fly vector requires a specific SCG-en- coded lipophosphoglycan galactosyl- ation pattern. PLOS pathogens. 6(11): e1001185.

El Tai N, Osman O, El Fari M, Presber W,Schönian G (2000) Genetic hetero- geneity of ribosomal internal tran- scribed spacer in clinical samples of Leishmania donovani spotted on fil- ter paper as revealed by single-strand conformation polymorphisms and se- quencing. Trans Royal Soc Trop Med Hyg. 94(5): 575–579.

Goto H, Lindoso JA (2010) Current diagno- sis and treatment of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 8(4): 419–433.

Hide M, Bañuls AL (2006) Species- specific PCR assay for L. Infantum/L. donovani discrimination. Acta Trop.100: 241–245.

Hotez PJ, Savioli L, Fenwick A (2012) Ne- glected tropical diseases of the Mid- dle East and North Africa: review of their prevalence, distribution, and op- portunities for control. PLos Negl Trop Dis. 6(2): e1475.

Kassiri H, RezaNaddaf S, Mohebali M, Javadian E (2012) Molecular charac- terization of Leishmania infection in sand flies from Sistan Va Baluchistan Province, southeastern Iran. Jun- dishapur J Microbiol. 2: 430–431.

Killick-kendrick R (1990) Phlebotomus vec- tors of Visceral leishmaniasis,a re- view. Med Vet Entomol. 4: 1–24.

Killick-Kendrick R (1999) The biology and control of phlebotomine sand flies. Clinics in Dermatol. 17: 279–289.

Noyes HA, Reyburn H, Bailey JW, Smith D (1998) A nested-PCRbased schizodeme method for identifying Leishmania kinetoplast minicircle classes directly from clinical samples and its applica- tion to the study of the epidemiology of Leishmania tropica in Pakistan. J Clin Microbiol. 36: 2877–2881.

Oshaghi MA, Ravasan NM, Javadian E, Mohebali M, Hajjaran H, Zare Z, Mohtarami F, Rassi Y (2009) Vector incrimination of sand flies in the most important visceral leishmaniasis focus in Iran. American J Trop Med Hyg. 81(4): 572–577.

Parvizi P , Ready P (2008) Nested PCRs and sequencing of nuclear ITS‐rDNA fragments detect three Leishmania species of gerbils in sandflies from Iranian foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. TropMed International Hlth. 13(9): 1159–1171.

Rassi Y, Gassemi MM, Javadian E, Rafiza- deh S, Motazedian H ,Vatadoost H (2006) Vectors and reservoirs of cu- taneous leishmaniasis in Marvdasht district. Southern Islamic Republic of Iran. East Med Health J. 13(3): 686–693.

Rassi Y, Sofizadeh A, Abai MR, Oshaghi MA, Rafizadeh S, Mohebail M,Mohtarami F, Salahi R (2008) Mo- lecular detection of Leishmania major in the vectors and reservoir hosts of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Kalaleh District, Golestan Province, Iran. J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 2(2): 21–27.

Rassi Y, Abai MR, Javadian E, Rafizadeh S, Imamian H, Mohebali M (2011b) Molecular detection of Leismania in- fection due to Leishmania major and L. turanica in the vectors and reser- voir host in Iran. Vector borne Zoon- otic Dis. 11(2): 145–150.

Rassi Y, Sanei Dehkordi AR, Oshaghi MA, Abai MR, Mohtarami F,Enayati AA, Zarei Z, Javadian E (2012b) First re- port on natural infection of the Phle-botomus tobbi by Leishmania infan- tum in northwestern Iran. Exp Parasi- tol. 131: 344–349.

Reithinger R, Dujardin JC, Louzir H, Pirmez C, Alexander B, Brooker S (2007) Cutaneous leishmaniasis. The Lancet Infec Dis. 7(9): 581–596.

Strelkova MV (1996) Progress in studies on central asian foci of zoonotic cutane- ous. Folia parasitologica. 43: 1–6.

Theodor O, Mesghali A (1964) On the phlebotomine of Iran. J Med Ento- mol. 1: 285–300.

WHO (2010) Control of the leishmaniases: report of a meeting of the WHO Expert Commitee on the Control of Leish- maniases, Geneva, 22–26 March 2010.

Published
2016-05-05
How to Cite
1.
Rafizadeh S, Saraei M, Abaei MR, Oshaghi MA, Mohebali M, Peymani A, Naserpour-Farivar T, Bakhshi H, Rassi Y. Molecular Detection of Leishmania major and L. turanica in Phlebotomus papatasi and First Natural Infection of P. salehi to L. major in North-east of Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 10(2):141-147.
Section
Original Article