Short Communication

The First Study of West Nile Virus in Feral Pigeons (Columba livia domestica) Using Conventional Reverse Transcriptase PCR in Semnan and Khorasane-Razavi Provinces, Northeast of Iran

Abstract

Background: West Nile Virus (WNV) is an arboviral infection continuing to be as major threat to human health as well as the livestock industry all around the world. Birds including pigeons are one of the potential reservoirs for WNV. This study aimed to detect the presence of WNV genome in feral pigeons circulating in Semnan and Khorasane-Razavi Provinces (Iran) including 10 urban and 10 suburban areas.Methods: Totally, 150 samples (brain and kidney) were collected equally from feral pigeons and the presence of WNV genome was evaluated in these samples after RNA extraction.Results: All the samples were negative for the presence of WNV-RNA in this investigation.Conclusion: Although obtained result indicated no evidence of WNV genome in feral pigeons but complementary studies regarding serologic detection of WNV in vertebrate hosts as well as pigeons and identification of arthropod vectors seems necessary for comprehensive determination about infection status in these areas. 
1. Trevejo RT, Eidson M (2008) West Nile virus. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 232(9): 1302–1309.
2. Romi R, Pontuale G, Ciufolini MG, Fioren¬tini G, Marchi A, Nicoletti L, Cocchi M, Tamburro A (2004) Potential vectors of West Nile virus following an equine dis¬ease outbreak in Italy. Med Vet Ento¬mol. 18(1): 14–19.
3. Turell MJ, Sardelis MR, Dohm DJ, O'Guinn ML (2001) Potential North American vectors of west Nile virus. Annal New York Acad Sci. 951(1): 317–324.
4. Özer N, Ergünay K, Simsek F, Kaynas S, Alten B, Caglar SS, Ustacelebi S (2007) West Nile virus studies in the Sanliurfa Province of Turkey. J Vec Ecol. 32(2): 202–206.
5. Moin-Vaziri V, Charrel RN, Badakhshan M, de Lam¬ballerie X, Rahbarian N, Mo-hammadi Bavani M, Azari-Hamidian S (2019) A Molecular screening of mos-quitoes (Diptera: Cu¬licidae) for fla-viviruses in a focus of West Nile virus infection in northern Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 13(4): 391–398.
6. Estrada-Franco JG, Navarro-Lopez R, Beasley DW, Coffey L, Carrara AS, Da Rosa AT, Clements T, Wang E, Ludwig GV, Cortes AC, Ramirez PP (2002) West Nile virus in Mexico: Evidence of wide¬spread circulation since July 2002. Emerg Infect Dis. 9(12): 1604–1611.
7. Figuerola J, Soriguer R, Rojo G, Tejedor CG, Jimenez-Clavero MA (2007) Sero-conversion in wild birds and local cir-culation of West Nile virus, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 13(12): 1915–1922.
8. Kim C, Oh H, Song J, Hur M, Suh JH, Jheong WH, Kim JT, Oh HS, Park JH (2016) First detection of West Nile vi-rus in domestic pigeon in Korea. J Vet Sci. 17(4): 587–589.
9. Komar N, Panella NA, Burns JE, Dusza SW, Mascarenhas TM, Talbot TO (2001) Serologic evidence for West Nile virus infection in birds in the New York City vicinity during an outbreak in 1999. Emerg Infect Dis. 7(4): 621–629.
10. Panella NA, Young G, Komar N (2013) Experimental infection of Eurasian col-lared‐dove (Streptopelia decaocto) with West Nile virus. J Vector Ecol. 38(2): 210–214.
11. Bagheri M, Terenius O, Oshaghi MA, Motazakker M, Asgari S, Dabiri F, Vatan¬doost H, Mohammadi Bavani M, Chavshin AR (2015) West Nile virus in mosquitoes of Iranian wetlands. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 15(12): 750–754.
12. Fereidouni SR, Ziegler U, Linke S, Nie-drig M, Modirrousta H, Hoffmann B, Groschup MH (2011) West Nile virus monitoring in migrating and resident wa¬ter birds in Iran: are common coots the main reservoirs of the virus in wet-lands? Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 11 (10): 1377–1381.
13. Shah-Hosseini N, Chinikar S, Ataei B, Fooks AR, Groschup MH (2014) Phy-logenetic analysis of West Nile virus genome, Iran. Emerg Infect Dis. 20(8): 1419–1421.
14. Lanciotti RS, Kerst AJ, Nasci RS, God-sey MS, Mitchell CJ, Savage HM, Ko-mar N, Panella NA, Allen BC, Volpe KE, Davis BS (2000) Rapid detection of West Nile virus from human clinical speci¬mens, field-collected mosquitoes, and avi¬an samples by a TaqMan reverse tran¬scriptase-PCR assay. J Clin Micro-biol. 38(11): 4066–4071.
15. Spedicato M, Carmine I, Bellacicco AL, Marruchella G, Marini V, Pisci¬ella M, Di Francesco G, Lorusso A, Monaco F, Savini G (2016) Experi¬mental infection of rock pigeons (Co¬lumba livia) with three West Nile virus lineage 1 strains isolated in Italy be¬tween 2009 and 2012. Epidemiol Infect. 144(6): 1301–1311.
16. Michel F, Sieg M, Fischer D, Keller M, Eiden M, Reuschel M, Schmidt V, Schwehn R, Rinder M, Urbaniak S, Mül¬ler K (2019) Evidence for West Nile Vi¬rus and Usutu virus infections in wild and resident birds in Germany, 2017 and 2018. Viruses. 11(7): 674–681.
17. Waziri IJ, Kabir J, Kwaga JK, Nguku P (2018) Serosurvey of West Nile virus in household-reared pigeons in Bauchi me-tropolis, Nigeria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 112(4): 169–174.
18. Yazici Z, Albayrak H, Ozan E, Gumusova S (2012) The first investiga-tion of West Nile virus in horses using real time RT-PCR in middle black sea region in Tur¬key. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 6(2): 151–157.
19. Castillo-Olivares J, Wood J (2004) West Nile virus infection of horses. Vet Res. 35(4): 467–483.
20. Apperson CS, Hassan HK, Harrison BA, Savage HM, Aspen SE, Farajollahi AR, Crans W, Daniels TJ, Falco RC, Bene-dict M, Anderson M (2004) Host feed-ing patterns of established and potential mosquito vectors of West Nile virus in the eastern United States. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 4(1): 71–82.
21. Rappole JH, Derrickson SR, Hubálek Z (2000) Migratory birds and spread of West Nile virus in the Western Hemi-sphere. Emerg Infect Dis. (4): 319–326.
22. Naficy K, Saidi S (1970) Serological sur-vey on viral antibodies in Iran. Trop Geog Med. 22(2): 183–88.
23. Meshkat Z, Chinikar S, Shakeri M, Ma-navifar L, Moradi M, Mirshahabi H, Jalali T, Khakifirouz S, Shahhosseini N (2015) Prevalence of West Nile virus in Mashhad, Iran: A population-based study. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 8(3): 203–205.
24. Sharifi Z, Mahmoudian SM, Talebian A (2010) A study of West Nile virus in-fection in Iranian blood donors. Arch Iran Med. 13: 1–4.
25. Ahmadnejad F, Otarod V, Fallah MH, Low¬enski S, Sedighi-Moghaddam R, Zavareh A, Durand B, Lecollinet S, Sa-batier P (2011) Spread of West Nile vi-rus in Iran: a cross-sectional serosurvey in equines, 2008–2009. Epidemiol In-fect. 139(10): 1587–1593.
26. Chinikar S, Javadi A, Ataei B, Shakeri H, Moradi M, Mostafavi E, Ghiasi SM (2012) Detection of West Nile virus ge-nome and specific antibodies in Iranian encephalitis patients. Epidemiol Infect. 140(8): 1525–1529.
Files
IssueVol 15 No 1 (2021) QRcode
SectionShort Communication
Published2021-03-31
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/jad.v15i1.6492
Keywords
Feral Pigeons; West Nile Virus; RT-PCR; Iran

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
1.
Staji H, Keyvanlou M, Geraili Z, Shahsavari H, Jafari E. The First Study of West Nile Virus in Feral Pigeons (Columba livia domestica) Using Conventional Reverse Transcriptase PCR in Semnan and Khorasane-Razavi Provinces, Northeast of Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 2021;15(1):136-142.