Original Article

Irritability Levels of Field and Laboratory Population of Culex pipiens Complex in Tehran to Different Groups of Insecticides


Background: The irritant effect of some insecticides can cause a proportion of mosquitoes to leave the sprayed rooms before acquiring a lethal dose, so the repeated contact al sub-lethal dose may lead to extent the resistance.Methods: Larvae and pupae of Culex pipiens complex were collected in mass from open canals of waste water in capital city Tehran and reared to obtain the first generation at laboratory. Sugar-fed 2–3 days female mosquitoes were used for the experiments and compared with laboratory strain. The irritability tests of insecticides impregnated pa­pers were measured in plastic conical exposure chambers placed which implemented at controlled conditions ac­cording  to  the  method  described  by WHO .Number of take-offs were counted during 15  minutes of exposure  time.Results: DDT had the most irritancy effect against field population of Cx. pipiens. DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin was moderately irritable against laboratory strain, whereas, addition to three previous insecticides, malathion, cyfluthrin and propoxur should be also considered as moderately irritable insecticides for field population of. Irritability level of etofenprox, fenithrothion, bendiocarb, and lambdacyhalothrin did not differ from control group.Conclusion: The irritability response of mosquitoes may have a negative impact on control measures. Periodical execution of irritability tests with insecticides that routinely used in vector control program is highly recommended.

Abai MR, Vatandoost H, Nateghpour M (1999) Field Evaluation of K-Othrine® for the control of malaria vectors in Ghassreghand area, Sistan and Balu- chistan Province. Proceeding of 2nd Malaria Congress held in May 2000, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Iran, pp. 112–113.

Abai MR, Mehravaran A, Vatandoost H, Oshaghia MA, Javadian E, Mashayekhi M, Mosleminia A, Piyazak N, Edallat H, Mohtarami F, Jabbarie H, Rafi F (2008) Comparative performance of imagicides on Anopheles stephensi, main malaria vector in a malarious area, southern Iran. J Vector Borne Dis. 45:307–312.

Achee NL, Sardelis ML, Dusfour IC, Chauhan KR, Grieco JP (2009) Characterization of Spatial Repellent, Contact Irritant, and Toxicant Chemical Actions of Stand- ard Vector Control Compounds. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 25(2): 156–167.

Alipour A, Ladonni H, Abai MR (2005) The significance of excito-repellency phe- nomenon in chemical control of ma- laria vectors. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Urban Pests Chow-Yang Lee and William H Robin- son (editors). Printed by Perniagaan Ph’ng @ PandY Design Network, Malaysia, pp. 495–496.

Azari-Hamidian S, Harbach RE (2009) Keys to the adult females and fourth-instar larvae of the mosquitoes of Iran (Diptera: Culicidae). Zootaxa. 2078:1–33.

Azari Hamidian S, Yaghoubi Ershadi MR, Javadian E, Moubedi I, Abai MR (2007) Review of dirofilariasis in Iran. J Guilan Univ Med Sci. 60(15): 102–113.

Azari-Hamidian SH, Linton YM, Abai MR, Ladonni H, Oshaghi MA, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Moosa-Kazemi SH, Shabkhiz H, Pakari A, Harbach RE (2010) Mos- quito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna of the Iranian islands in the Persian Gulf. J Nat Hist. 44(15–16): 913–925.

Bhatia SC, Deobhankar RB (1963) Irritabil- ity of susceptible and resistance field population of An. culicifacies in Maha- rashtra state, India. WHO/Mal/362. WHO/Vector Control/9.

Borhani, N, Vatandoost H (2004) Suscepti- bility and irritability levels of main malaria vectors to synthetic pyrethroids in the endemic areas of Iran. Acta Med Iran. 42(4): 240–247.

Brown AWA (1958) Laboratory studies on the behavioristic resistance of Anoph- eles albimanus in Panama. Bull Wld Hlth Org. 19: 1053–1061.

Chareonviriyaphap T, Bangs MJ, Suwonkerd W, Kongmee M, Corbel V, Ngoen- Klan R (2013) Review of insecticide resistance and behavioral avoidance of vectors of human diseases in Thailand. Parasit Vectors. 6(280): 1–28.

Coluzzi M (1963) Studies on irritability of DDT to anopheline mosquitoes. WHO/ Vector Control/33.

Eshghy N (1972) Studies on the irritability of a field population of Anopheles maculipennis and An.superpictus to DDT. Iran J Pub Health. 1(1): 9–19.

Eshghy N (1977) Laboratory experiments on the irritability of Anopheles artroparvus and An.stephensi to DDT. Iran J Pub Health. 6(1): 12–23.

Hodjati MH, Mousavi N, Curtis CF (2003) Irritant effect, prevention of blood feeding and toxicity of nets impreg-nated with different pyrethroids on An. stephensi. J Vect Borne Dis. 40: 54–59.

Harbach RE (1988) The mosquitoes of the subgenus Culex in southwestern Asia

and Egypt (Diptera: Culicidae). Con- trib Amer Ent Inst. 24(1): 1–237.

Harbach RE (2011) Classification within the cosmopolitan genus Culex (Diptera: Culicidae): the foundation for molec- ular systematics and phylogenetic re- search. Acta Trop. 120(1–2): 1–14.

Hougard JM, Duchon S, Darriet F, Zaim M, Rogier C, Guillet P (2003) Compara- tive performances, under laboratory conditions, of seven pyrethroid insec- ticides used for impregnation of mos- quito nets. Bull Wld Hlth Org. 81(5):324–333.

Kaschef AH (1968) Effect of temperature on the irritability of Anopheline mosqui- toes due to DDT and DDT-analoques. WHO/VBC/69.142.

Muirhead-Thomson RC (1960) The signifi- cance of irritability, behaviouristic avoid- ance and allied phenomena in Malaria eradication. Bull Wld Hlth Org. 22: 721–734.

Nazari M, Janbakhsh B (2000) Study on ef- fect of DDT, Dieldrin, Propoxur and Malathion against Culex pipiens and Culex theileri, South of Tehran. J Urmieh Univ Med Sci. 11(1): 13–19.

Quinones ML, Suarez MF (1989) Irritability to DDT of natural populations of the primary malaria vectors in Colombia. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 5(1): 56–59.

Rutledge LC, Echano NM, Gupta RK (1999) Responses of male and female mos- quitoes to repellents in the World Health Organization insecticides irri- tability test system. J Am Mosq Con- trol Assoc. 15(1): 60–64.

Sorokin NN, Mingaleva GN (1992) A com- parison of the level of resistance and irritability in Anopheles hyrcanus and An. superpictus to insecticides. Med Parazitol. 1: 15–17.

Smith JL, Fonseca DM (2004) Rapid assays for identification of members of the Culex (Culex) pipiens complex, their hybrids, and other sibling species (Diptera: culicidae). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 70(4): 339–345.

Thomson R (1947) The effects of house spraying with pyrethrum and with DDT on Anopheles gambiae and A. melas in West Africa. Bull Entomol Res. 38(03): 449–464.

Vatandoost H (2000) Behavioral changes in permethrin-resistant strain of Anophe- les stephensi. Acta Med Iran. 38(2):105–110.

Vatandoost H (2001) Irritability level of Anopheles stephensi to different insec- ticides in Iran. Iran J Public Health.30(1–4): 27–30.

Vatandoost H, Borhani N (2004) Suscepti- bility and Irritability levels of main malaria vectors to synthetic pyrethroids in the endemic areas of Iran. Acta Med Iran. 42(4): 240–247.

Vatandoost H, Ezeddinloo L, Mahvi AH, Abai MR, Kia EB, Mobedi I (2005a) Enhanced tolerance of house mosquito to different insecticides due to agri- cultural and household pesticides in sewage system of Tehran, Iran. Iranian J Env Health Sci Eng. 1(1): 42–45.

Vatandoost H, Mashayekhi M, Abai MR, Aflatoonian MR, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Sharifi I (2005b) Monitoring of insec- ticides resistance in main malaria vec- tors in a malarious area of Kahnooj district, Kerman Province, southeastern Iran. J Vector Borne Dis. 42(3): 100–108.

Vatandoost H, Emami SN, Oshaghi MA, Abai MR, Raeisi A, Piazzak N, Mahmoodi M, Akbarzadeh K, Sartipi M (2011) Ecology of malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies in a malarious area of Sistan and Baluchestan Province, south-eastIslamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 17(5): 439–445.

Vatandoost H, Abai MR (2012) Irritability of malaria vector, Anopheles sacharovi to different insecticides in a malaria– prone area. Asian Pacific J Trop Med.5(2): 113–116.

Vatandoost H, Hanafi-Bojd AA (2012) Indi- cation of pyrethroid resistance in the main malaria vector Anopheles stephensi from Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Med.

(9): 722–726.

Vinogradova EB (2000) Culex pipiens pipiens mosquitoes: taxonomy, distribution, ecology, physiology, genetic, applied importance and control, Pensoft Pub- lishers.

WHO (1964) Insecticides resistance and vector control. 10th report of the WHO Expert Committee on insecticides. Vector resistance to pyrethoids. WHO Tech Rep Ser. 191.

WHO (1970) Insecticides resistance and vector control.17th report of the WHO Expert Committee on insecticides. In- structions for determining the irritabil- ity of adult mosquitoes to insecticides. WHO Tech Rep Ser. 433: 158–163.

Zaim M (1987) The distribution and larval habitat characteristics of Iranian Culi- cinae. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 3(4):568–573.

Zaim M, Cranston P (1986) Checklist and keys to the Culicinae of Iran (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq Syst. 18 (3–4): 233–245.

IssueVol 10 No 2 (2016) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article
Irritability Insecticides Culex pipiens Tehran Iran

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Rahimi S, Vatandoost H, Abai MR, Raeisi A, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Rafi F. Irritability Levels of Field and Laboratory Population of Culex pipiens Complex in Tehran to Different Groups of Insecticides. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 2016;10(2):178-191.