Original Article

Diversity of Hard Tick Populations and Their Geographical Variations in Northwestern Iran

Abstract

Background: Ticks are forced vertebrate ectoparasites, including humans, and are vectors of serious diseases such as Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Relapsing Fever, and various forms of encephalitis. Spatial assessment of the prevalence of ticks and detection of high risk areas for tick-borne disease transmission and evaluation of ecological measures are key aims of this research.Methods: Ticks were collected using standard methods from 27 villages in the region of Sarab County in north-eastern Iran during the four seasons of 2018–2019 and identified using valid keys. The calculations of indices for biodiversity were based on the Margalef index, Shannon-Weiner index and Simpson index. R2.15 Statistical software was used for statistical analysis of indices of biodiversity, and ArcMap10.4.1 software, IDW and GeneralG methods were used. Analysis were used to investigate spatial distribution and to determine important tick hotspots.Results:  A total of 2500 animals surveyed, 35% of them were infected. In total, 1416 ticks were caught, 74.6 %, 23.9% and 1.4 % were adult, nymph and larvae respectively. 94% of the ticks were hard ticks including 6 genera. According to the Margalef diversity index, the highest species biodiversity was related to summer (1.4234), and the lowest was relat­ed to winter (0.7379),Conclusion: Large hotspot area was found in the central part of the study area. The area of study was very prone to tick-borne disease transmission in terms of tick diversity and tick species richness. Tick-borne disease control is an im­portant measure.
1. Lane RP, Crosskey RW (1993) Medical in-sects and arachnids. Chapman and Hal, UK, p. 723.
2. Goodman JL, Dennis DT, Sonenshine DE (2005) Tick-borne diseases of humans: ASM press, DC. ISBN: 1-55581-23-4. Washington, p. 440.
3. de la Fuente J (2018) Controlling ticks and tick-borne diseases, looking forward. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 9(5): 1354–1357.
4. Rahbari S, Nabian S, Shayan P (2007) Primary report on distribution of tick fauna in Iran. Parasitol Res. 101(2): 175–177.
5. Van Vliet T, Kohli J, Demaria M (2019) Consequences of senotherapies for tissue repair and reprogramming. J Transl Med Age. 3: 31–36.
6. Davari B, Alam FN, Nasirian H, Nazari M, Abdigoudarzi M, Salehzadeh A (2017) Seasonal distribution and faunistic of ticks in the Alashtar county (Lorestan Province), Iran. Pan Afr Med J. 27: 284–290.
7. de la Fuente J, Antunes S, Bonnet S, Cabezas-Cruz A, Domingos AG, Estrada-Peña A, Johnson N, Kocan KM, Mans¬field KL, Nijhof AM, Papa A, Rudenko N, Villar M, Alberdi P, Torina A, Ayllón N, Vancova M, Golovchenko M, Grubhoffer L, Caracappa S, Fooks AR, Gortazar Ch, Rego ROM (2017) Tick-pathogen interactions and vector competence: identification of molecular drivers for tick-borne diseases. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 7: 114.
8. Nava S, Guglielmone AA, Mangold AJ (2009) An overview of systematics and evolution of ticks. J Front Biosci. 14(8): 2857–2877.
9. Otranto D, Dantas-Torres F, Giannelli A, Latrofa MS, Cascio A, Cazzin S, Ravagnan S, Montarsi S, Aurelio Zanzani S, Teresa Manfredi M, Capelli G (2014) Ticks infesting humans in Italy and associated pathogens. Parasites Vectors. 7(1): 328–331.
10. Moradi Asl E, Vatandoost H, Telmadarreiy Z, Mohebali M, Abai MR (2018) Re-pellency effect of flumethrin pour-on formulation against vectors of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever. Eeast Meditter Health J. 24(11): 1082–1087.
11. Masoumi Asl H, Goya M, Vatandoost H, Zahraei S, Mafi M, Asmar M (2009) The epidemiology of tick-borne relapsing fever in Iran during 1997–2006. Travel Med Infect Dis. 7(3): 160–164.
12. Wood CL, Lafferty KD (2013) Biodiversity and disease: a synthesis of ecological perspectives on Lyme disease transmission. Trends Ecol Evol. 28(4): 239–247.
13. Keirans JE, Litwak TR (1989) Pictorial key to the adults of hard ticks, family Ixodidae (Ixodida: Ixodoidea), east of the Mississippi River. J Med Entomol. 26(5): 435–448
14. Yaser SA, Sadegh C, Zakkyeh T, Vatandoost H, Maryam M, Ali OM (2011) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: a molecular survey on hard ticks (Ixodidae) in Yazd Province, Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Dis. 4(1): 61–63.
15. Bakhshai A, Askari N, Etebar F, Ebrahim-zade E (2012) Hard ticks fauna in the area of domestic ruminants and Kohnuj Jiroft, Kerman Province, Iran. J Vet Lab Res. 4(1): 145–149.
16. Telmadarreyi Z (2009) Frequency of Ix-odidae and Argasidae ticks and deter¬mi-nation of their sensitivity in the toxin cypermetryn Meshkinshahr. Ardabil Uni Med Sci J. 9(2): 127–133. [In Persian]
17. Nasiri A, Telmadarraiy Z, Vatandoost H, Chinikar S, Moradi M, Oshaghi M (2010) Tick infestation rate of sheep and their distribution in Abdanan County, Ilam Province, Iran, 2007–2008. Iran J Arthropod Borne Dis. 4(2): 56–60.
18. Sarani M, Telmadarraiy Z, Moghaddam AS, Azam K, Sedaghat MM (2014) Distribution of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants in mountainous areas of Golestan Province, Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 4(Suppl 1): S246–251.
19. Vatandoost H, Moradi-Asl E, Telmadarreiy Z, Mohebali M, Masoumi-Asl H, Abai MR, Zarei Z (2012) Field efficacy of flumethrin pour-on against livestock ticks in Iran. Int J Acarol. 38(6): 457–464.
Files
IssueVol 15 No 2 (2021) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/jad.v15i2.7487
Keywords
Ticks; Species biodiversity; GIS; Iran

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
1.
Moradi R, Moradi-Asl E, Telmadarraiy Z, Parkhideh SZ, Rassi Y. Diversity of Hard Tick Populations and Their Geographical Variations in Northwestern Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 2022;15(2):179-186.