Original Article

Biodiversity Indices and Medically Importance of Ticks in North Khorasan Province, Northeast of Iran


Background: Ticks are considered as the main vectors for the transmission of various pathogens such as relapsing fever and CCHF to humans. This study was investigated the biodiversity indices and medically importance of ticks in North Khorasan Province, Northeast of Iran during 2015–2019.
Methods: Specimens were captured from infested ruminants including cows, sheep, and goats. Additionally, tick col­lections also were performed on non-domesticated creatures such as turtles, rodents, and hedgehogs. Specimens were identified using valid identification keys. Species diversity, species richness and evenness indices have been calculated to estimate species biodiversity of ticks.
Results: A total of 1478 adult ticks were collected. The specimens were from two families: Ixodidae (90.05%) and Ar­gasidae (9.95%), 6 genera and 17 species including: Rhipicephalus sanguineus (55.9%), Rhipicephalus bursa (13.4%), Hyalomma marginatum (9.5%), Hyalomma anatolicum (9.5%), Hyalomma asiaticum (0.2%), Hyalomma aegyptium (0.5%), Hyalomma scupense (1.3%), Hyalomma sp (1.2%), Haemaphysalis sulcata (0.7%), Haemaphysalis erinacea  (0.1%), Haemaphysalis inermis (0.1%), Haemaphysalis punctata  (0.2%), Haemaphysalis concinna (0.1% Boophilus annulatus (1.2), and Dermacentor marginatus (6.1%) among hard ticks as well as  Argas persicus (91.8%) and Argas reflexus (8.2%) amongst soft ticks. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rh. Bursa, Hy. marginatum and Hy. anatolicum were known as the most frequent species of hard ticks. Tick’s species richness, Shannon diversity index and Simpson index in this area were S= 17, H’= 1.69, D= 0.294 respectively.
Conclusion: Based on tick distribution veterinary authority, public health organizations and other officials should act for implementation of disease prevention.

1. Service MW (1980) A Guide to Medical Entomology London and Basingstoke: Macmillan Press. p. 226.
2. Kazimirova M, Stibraniova I (2013) Tick salivary compounds: their role in modulation of host defenses and pathogen transmission. Front Cell Infect. Micro-biol. 3: 43.
3. Jongejan F, Uilenberg G (2004) The global importance of ticks. Parasitology. 129: S3–14.
4. Demessie Y, Derso S (2015) Tick Borne Hemoparasitic Diseases of Ruminants: A Review. Adv Biol Res. 9: 210–224.
5. Smith T, Kilbourne FL (1893) (Investiga-tors into the nature, causation, and pre-vention of Texas or southern cattle fever. Bull Bur Anim Ind. 1: 301.
6. Guglielmone GA, Robbins RG, Apa-naskevich DA, Petney TN, Estrada-Peña A, Horak IG (2010) The Argasidae, Ixodidae and Nuttalliellidae (Acari: Ixodida) of the world: a list of valid species names. Zootaxa. 2528: 1–28.
7. Szabó MPJ, Castro MB, Ramos HGC, Garcia MV, Castagnolli KC, Pinter A (2007) Species diversity and seasonality of free-living ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in the natural habitat of wild Marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) in Southeastern Brazil. Vet Parasitol. 143: 147–154.
8. Yu Z, Wang H, Wang T, Sun W, Yang X, Liu J (2015) Tick-borne pathogens and the vector potential of ticks in China. Parasite vectors. 148: 24.
9. Grech-Angelini S, Stachurski F, Lancelot R, Boissier J, Allienne JF, Marco S, Maestrini O, Uilenberg G (2016) Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting cattle and some other domestic and wild hosts on the French Mediterranean island of Corsica. Parasite vectors. 9: 582.
10. ElGhali A, Hassan SM (2012) Ticks infesting animals in the Sudan and southern Sudan: Past and current status. J Vet Res. 79: 431–437.
11. Sertse T, Wossene A (2007) A study on ectoparasites of sheep and goats in eastern part of Amhara region, northeast Ethiopia. Small Ruminant Res. 69: 62–67.
12. Mamak N, Gençer L, Ozkanlar YE, Ozçelik S (2006) Determination of tick species and treatment of cows, sheep and goats in the Sivas-Zara region, Turkiye. Parazitol Derg. 30: 209–212.
13. Delpy L (1936) Note sur les Ixodides dugenre Hyalomma (Koch). Ann Parasitol Hum Comp. 14: 206–245.
14. Abbasian L (1961) Records of tick (Acarina: Ixodidae) occurring in Iran and their distributional data. Acarologia. 3: 546–559.
15. Mazlum Z (1971) Different Ticks occurring in Iran (geographical distribution, seasonal activities, hosts), Bull. Faculty of Veterinary. 27: 1–32.
16. Razmi GR, Glinsharifodini M, Sarvi S (2007) Prevalence of ixodid ticks on cattle in Mazandaran Province, Iran. Korean J Parasitol. 45: 307–310.
17. Rahbari S, Nabian S, Shayan P (2007) Primary report on distribution of tick fauna in Iran. Parasitol Res. 101(Suppl): S175–S177.
18. Nabian S, Rahbari S, Shayan P, Haddadzadeh HR (2007) Current status of tick fauna in north of Iran. Iran. J Parasitol. 2: 12–17.
19. Hosseini vasoukolaei, N, Telmadarraiy Z, Vatandoost H, Yaghoobi Ershadi MR, Hosseini vasoukolaei M, Oshaghi MA (2010) Survey of tick species parasiting domestic ruminants in Ghaemshahr County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 3: 804–806.
20. Asadollahi Z, Razi Jalali MH, Alborzi A, Hamidinejat H, Pourmahdi Boroujeni M, Sazmand A (2014) Study of cattle ixodid ticks in Khoozestan Province, South-West of Iran. Acarina. 22: 157–160.
21. Ramezani Z, Chavshin AR, Telmadarraiy Z, Edalat H, Dabiri F, Vatandoost H, Zarei Z, Beik-Mohammadi M (2014) Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of livestock and their seasonal activities, northwest of Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Dis. 4: 754–757.
22. Ganjali M, Dabirzadeh M, Sargolzaie M (2014) Species Diversity and Distribution of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Zabol County, Eastern Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 8: 219–223.
23. Telmadarraiy Z, Chinikar S, Vatandoost H, Faghihi F, Hosseini-Chegeni, A (2015) Vectors of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 9: 137–147.
24. Chinikar S, Ghiasi SM, Moradi M, Goya MM, Shirzadi MR, Zeinali M, Meshkat M, Bouloy M (2010) Geo graphical distribution and surveillance of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 10: 705–708.
25. Chinikar S, Ghiasi SM, Naddaf S, Piazak N, Moradi M, Razavi MR (2012) Serological evaluation of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in humans with high-risk professions living in enzootic regions of Isfahan Province of Iran and genetic analysis of circulating strains. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 12: 733–738.
26. Estrada-Pena A, Bouattour A, Camicas JL, Walker AR (2004) Ticks of Domestic animals in the mediterranean. A guide to the identification of species. Bioscience reports. London, UK.
27. Biodiversity Calculator. Retrieved No-vem¬ber 5, 2019. Available at: https://www.alyoung.com/labs/biodiversity_calculator.html
28. Inci A, Yildirim A, Duzlu O, Doganay M, Aksoy S (2016) Tick-Borne Diseases in Turkey: A Review Based on One Health Perspective. PloS Negl Trop Dis. 10: e0005021.
29. Ghorbani M, Jafari F (2013) Wheat risk diversification in North Khorasan Province: A risk profile analysis. African J Economics. 1: 162–169.
30. Razmi GR, Naghibi A, Aslani MR, Fathivand M, Dastjerdi K (2002) An epidemiological study on ovine babesiosis of Khorasan Province, Iran. Vet Parasitol. 108: 109–115.
31. Yakhchali M, Hosseine A (2006) Prevalence and ectoparasites fauna of sheep and goats flocks in Urmia suburb, Iran. Veterinarskio Arhiv. 76: 431–442.
32. Jongejan F, Ringenier M, Putting M, Berger L, Burgers S, Kortekaas R (2015) Novel foci of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks infected with Babesia canis and Babesia caballi in the Netherlands and in Belgium. Parasite Vectors. 8: 232.
33. Nourollahi Fard SR, Khalili M (2011) PCR-Detection of Coxiella burnetii in Ticks Collected from Sheep and Goats in Southeast Iran. Iran J Arthropod Borne Dis. 5: 1–6.
34. Nasiri A, Telmadarraiy Z, Vatandoost H, Chinikar S (2010) Tick Infestation rat of sheep and their distribution in Abdanan County, Ilam Province, Iran, 2007–2008. Iran J Arthropod Borne Dis. 4: 56–60.
35. Asgarian F, Enayati AA, Amouei A, Yazdani Charati J (2011) Fauna, Geo-graphical Distribution and Seasonal Activity of Hard Ticks from Sari Township in 2007–2008. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci. 21: 25–33.
36. Urquhart GM, Armour J, Duncan JL, Dunn AM, Jennings FW (1996) Veterinary parasitology, 2nd ed. Glasgow, Scotland: Wiley-Black Well.
37. Hosseini-Chegeni A, Telmadarraiy Z, Salimi M, Arzamani K, Banafshi O (2014) A record of Haemaphysalis erinacei (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from Hedgehog and an identification key for the species of Haemaphysalis occurring in Iran. Persian J Acarol. 3(3): 203–215.
38. Shemshad K, Rafinejad J, Kamali K, Pia-zak N, Sedaghat MM, Shemshad M (2012) Species diversity and geographic distribution of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea: Ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants, in Qazvin Province, Iran. Parasitol Res. 110: 373–380.
39. Farahi A, Ebrahimzade E, Nabian S, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Akbarzadeh K, Baho-nar A (2016) Temporal and spatial distribution and species diversity of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in the eastern region of Caspian Sea. Acta Trop. 164: 1–9.
40. Sofizadeh A, Akbarzadeh K, Telmadarraiy Z, Gorganli-Davaji A (2019) Distribution and Biodiversity of Hard Ticks (Acarina: Ixodidae) in Golestan Province. Sjsph. 16(4): 411–424.
41. Fazeli-Dinan M, Asgarian F, Nikookar SH, Ziapour SP, Enayati A (2019) De-fining and comparison of biodiversity components of hard ticks on domestic hosts at Highland, Woodland and Plain in Northern Iran. Trop Biomed. 36: 114–130.
IssueVol 15 No 2 (2021) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/jad.v15i2.7488
Tick infestations; Ruminant; Geographic information system; Ixodidae; Argasidae

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Arzamani K, Saghafipour A, Hashemi SA, Vatandoost H, Alavinia M, Raeghi S, Telmadarraiy Z. Biodiversity Indices and Medically Importance of Ticks in North Khorasan Province, Northeast of Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 2021;15(2):187-195.