Original Article

Structure and Antibacterial Activity of Chitosan from the American Cockroach, the German Cockroach and the Mealworm Beetle


Background: Owing to chitosan properties such as biocompatibility and antimicrobial activities, and several applications in biomedical field, some physicochemical and anti-bacterial properties, and the level of chitosan from three species of American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Dictyoptera: Blattidae), the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (Dictyoptera: Ectobiidae) and the Mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) were investigated.

Methods: The cuticle of adults derived from specimens was dried and grounded. The powders were demineralized as well as deproteinized after deacetylation via NaOH. At last, the chitosan yields from insects were studied for anti-bacterial activity on Gram-positive bacteria (Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae), and Gram-negative bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus epidermidis). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze the chitosan composition.

Results: The chitosan ratios of the American and German cockroaches and the mealworm beetle were 5.80, 2.95, and 1.70% per 3 g of the dried bodies respectively. The chitin DD’s for the American cockroach, the German cockroach and the mealworm beetle were 36.8%, 31.5% and 27.3%, respectively. The bactericidal activity of chitosan obtained from the American cockroach at a concentration of 1% had the greatest effect on P. mirabilis compared to other concentrations, while chitosan obtained from the German cockroach at a concentration of 0.01% had the greatest effect on K. pneumoniae compared to other concentrations.

Conclusion: According to the results, the anti-bacterial influence of the chitosan is based upon the insect species and chitosan concentration. Probably, the variation relates to the changes in the chitin structure among the three insect species.

1. Dash M, Chiellini F, Ottenbrite RM, Chiel-lini E (2011) Chitosan-A versatile semi-synthetic polymer in biomedical appli¬ca-tions. Prog Polym Sci. 36(8): 981–1014.
2. Shahidi F, Abuzaytoun R (2005) Chitin, chitosan, and co-products: chemistry, pro¬duction, applications, and health effects. Adv Food Nutr Res. 49: 93–137.
3. Ong S-Y, Wu J, Moochhala SM, Tan M-H, Lu J (2008) Development of a chitosan-based wound dressing with improved hemostatic and antimicrobial properties. Biomaterials. 29(32): 4323–3432.
4. Aranaz I, Mengíbar M, Harris R, Paños I, Miralles B, Acosta N, Galed G, Heras Á (2009) Functional characterization of chitin and chitosan. Curr Chem Biol. 3(2): 203–230.
5. Luo Q, Wang Y, Han Q, Ji L, Zhang H, Fei Z, Wang Y (2019) Comparison of the physicochemical, rheological, and mor-phologic properties of chitosan from four insects. Carbohydr Polym. 209: 266–275.
6. Zhang M, Haga A, Sekiguchi H, Hirano S (2000) Structure of insect chitin isolated from beetle larva cuticle and silkworm (Bombyx mori) pupa exuvia. Int J Biol Macromol. 27(1): 99–105.
7. Yen MT, Yang JH, Mau JL (2009) Phys-icochemical characterization of chitin and chitosan from crab shells. Carbohydr Polym. 75(1): 15–21.
8. Jang MK, Kong BG, Jeong YI, Lee CH, Nah JW (2004) Physicochemical char¬ac-terization of α‐chitin, β‐chitin, and γ‐chitin separated from natural resources. J Polym Sci, Part A: Polym Chem. 42(14): 3423–3432.
9. Bakshi PS, Selvakumar D, Kadirvelu K, Kumar N (2020) Chitosan as an envi-ronment friendly biomaterial–a review on recent modifications and applications. Int J Biol Macromol. 150: 1072–1083.
10. Yadollahi M, Farhoudian S, Namazi H (2015) One-pot synthesis of antibac¬te¬rial chitosan/silver bio-nanocomposite hydro¬gel beads as drug delivery systems. Int J Biol Macromol. 79: 37–43.
11. Liu W, Qin Y, Liu S, Xing R, Yu H, Chen X, Li K, Li P (2018) Synthesis of C-co-ordinated O-carboxymethyl chitosan met¬al complexes and evaluation of their an¬tifungal activity. Sci Rep. 8(1): 1–10.
12. Yarahmadi M, Fakhar M, Ebrahimzadeh
MA, Chabra A, Rahimi-Esboei B (2016) The anti-giardial effectiveness of fungal and commercial chitosan against Giardia intestinalis cysts in vitro. J Parasit Dis. 40(1): 75–80.
13. Rahimi MT, Ahmadpour E, Esboei BR, Spotin A, Koshki MHK, Alizadeh A, Ho¬nary S, Barabadi H, Mohammadi MA (2015) Scolicidal activity of biosyn¬the-sized silver nanoparticles against Echino-coccus granulosus protoscolices. Int J Surg. 19: 128–133.
14. Grisin T, Bories C, Bombardi M, Loiseau PM, Rouffiac V, Solgadi A, Mallet JM, Ponchel G, Bouchemal K (2017) Supra-mo¬lecular chitosan micro-platelets syner-gis¬tically enhance anti-Candida albicans activity of amphotericin B using an im-mu¬nocompetent murine model. Pharm Res. 34(5): 1067–1082.
15. Goy RC, Britto Dd, Assis OB (2009) A review of the antimicrobial activity of chitosan. Polímeros. 19(3): 241–247.
16. Shahraki H, Basseri HR, Mirahmadi H, Baf¬ghi MF, Mehravarn A, Heydarian P, Esboei BR (2018) Evaluation of Anti-bac¬terial and Antifungal Activity of Chi¬tosan in Integument of Cockroaches. Int J Basic Appl Med. 3(3): 104–108.
17. Perinelli DR, Campana R, Skouras A, Bonacu¬cina G, Cespi M, Mastrotto F, Baf¬fone W, Casettari L (2018) Chitosan loaded into a hydrogel delivery system as a strategy to treat vaginal co-infec-tion. Pharmaceutics. 10(1): 23–38.
18. Chung YC, Chen CY (2008) Antibacterial characteristics and activity of acid-sol-uble chitosan. Bioresour Technol. 99(8): 2806–2814.
19. Amirabad LM, Jonoobi M, Mousavi NS, Oksman K, Kaboorani A, Yousefi H (2018) Improved antifungal activity and stability of chitosan nanofibers using cel-lulose nanocrystal on banknote papers. Carbohydr Polym. 189: 229–237.
20. Carrión-Granda X, Fernández-Pan I, Jaime I,
Rovira J, Maté JI (2016) Improvement of the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat peeled shrimps (Penaeus van-namei) by the use of chitosan coatings. Int J Food Microbiol. 232: 144–149.
21. Basseri H, Bakhtiyari R, Hashemi SJ, Ban-iardelani M, Shahraki H, Hosainpour L (2019) Antibacterial/antifungal activity of extracted chitosan from American cock¬roach (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) and Ger¬man cockroach (Blattodea: Blattellidae). J Med Entomol. 56(5): 1208–1214.
22. Chang AKT, Frias Jr RR, Alvarez LV, Bigol UG, Guzman JPMD (2019) Com-par¬ative antibacterial activity of com-mer¬cial chitosan and chitosan extracted from Auricularia sp. Biocatal Agric Biotech¬nol. 17: 189–195.
23. Khan HA, Ahmad A, Mehboob R (2015) Nosocomial infections and their control strategies. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 5 (7): 509–514.
24. Chang KLB, Tsai G, Lee J, Fu WR (1997) Heterogeneous N-deacetylation of chitin in alkaline solution. Carbohydr Res. 303 (3): 327–332.
25. Romanazzi G, Gabler FM, Margosan D, Mackey BE, Smilanick JL (2009) Effect of chitosan dissolved in different acids on its ability to control postharvest gray mold of table grape. Phytopathology. 99 (9): 1028–1036.
26. De Queiroz Antonino RSCM, Lia Fook BRP, de Oliveira Lima VA, de Farias Rached RÍ, Lima EPN, da Silva Lima RJ, Peniche Covas CA, Lia Fook MV (2017) Preparation and characterization of chi¬tosan obtained from shells of shrimp (Li¬topenaeus vannamei Boone). Mar Drugs. 15(5): 141–153.
27. Zhong Z, Xing R, Liu S, Wang L, Cai S, Li P (2008) Synthesis of acyl thiourea derivatives of chitosan and their anti¬mi-crobial activities in vitro. Carbohydr Res. 343(3): 566–570.
28. Hudzicki J (2009) Kirby-Bauer disk diffu¬-
sion susceptibility test protocol. Ameri-can society for microbiology. 15: 55–63.
29. Kaya M, Erdogan S, Mol A, Baran T (2015) Comparison of chitin structures isolated from seven Orthoptera species. Int J Biol Macromol. 72: 797–805.
30. Liu S, Sun J, Yu L, Zhang C, Bi J, Zhu F, Qu M, Jiang C, Yang Q (2012) Extrac-tion and characterization of chitin from the beetle Holotrichia parallela Motschulsky. Molecules. 17(4): 4604–4611.
31. Kaya M, Baran T, Mentes A, Asaroglu M, Sezen G, Tozak KO (2014) Extraction and characterization of α-chitin and chitosan from six different aquatic invertebrates. Food biophysics. 9(2): 145–157.
32. Sajomsang W, Gonil P (2010) Preparation and characterization of α-chitin from ci-cada sloughs. Mater Sci Eng C. 30(3): 357–363.
33. Jung EJ, Youn DK, Lee SH, No HK, Ha JG, Prinyawiwatkul W (2010) Antibac-terial activity of chitosans with different degrees of deacetylation and viscosities. Int J Food Sci Technol. 45(4): 676–682.
34. Dragland IS, Rukke HV, Stenhagen IS, Lönn-Stensrud J, Kopperud HM (2016) Antibacterial and antibiofilm effect of low viscosity chitosan against Staphy-lococ¬cus epidermidis. Int J Microbiol. 2016: 1–7.
35. Kaya M, Baran T, Erdoğan S, Menteş A, Özüsağlam MA, Çakmak YS (2014) Phys¬icochemical comparison of chitin and chi¬tosan obtained from larvae and adult Col¬orado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decem¬lin¬eata). Mater Sci Eng C. 45: 72–81.
36. Badawy RM, Mohamed HI (2015) Chitin extration, composition of different six in¬sect species and their comparable char-acteristics with that of the shrimp. J Am Sci. 11(6): 127–134.
37. Vinsova J, Vavrikova E (2011) Chitosan derivatives with antimicrobial, anti-tumour and antioxidant activities-a review. Curr Pharm Des. 17(32): 3596–3607.
38. Li J, Wu Y, Zhao L (2016) Antibacterial
activity and mechanism of chitosan with ultra high molecular weight. Carbohydr Polym. 148: 200–205.
39. Tikhonov VE, Stepnova EA, Babak VG, Yamskov IA, Palma-Guerrero J, Jansson HB, Lopez-Llorca LV, Salinas J, Gerasi-menko DV, Avdienko ID (2006) Bacte-ricidal and antifungal activities of a low molecular weight chitosan and its N-/2 (3)-(dodec-2-enyl) succinoyl/-deriv¬a-tives. Carbohydr Polym. 64(1): 66–72.
40. Zhao G, Hu C, Xue Y (2018) In vitro eval¬uation of chitosan‐coated liposome con¬taining both coenzyme Q10 and al-pha‐ lipoic acid: Cytotoxicity, antioxidant ac¬tivity, and antimicrobial activity. J Cos¬met Dermatol. 17(2): 258–262.
41. Coma V, Deschamps A, Martial‐Gros A (2003) Bioactive packaging materials from edible chitosan polymer-antimicrobial ac¬tivity assessment on dairy‐related con¬tam¬inants. J Food Sci. 68(9): 2788–2792.
42. Dutta P, Tripathi S, Mehrotra G, Dutta J (2009) Perspectives for chitosan based an¬timicrobial films in food applications. Food Chem. 114(4): 1173–1182.
43. Chung YC, Su YP, Chen CC, Jia G, Wang HL, Wu JG, Lin JG (2004) Relationship between antibacterial activity of chi¬tosan and surface characteristics of cell wall. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 25(7): 932–936.
44. Eldin MM, Soliman E, Hashem A, Tamer T (2008) Antibacterial activity of chi-tosan chemically modified with new tech¬nique. Trends Biomater Artif Organs. 22(3): 125–137.
45. Šimůnek J, Tishchenko G, Hodrová B, Bartoňo¬vá H (2006) Effect of chitosan on the growth of human colonic bac¬te-ria. Folia Microbiol. 51(4): 306–308.
46. Eaton P, Fernandes JC, Pereira E, Pintado ME, Malcata FX (2008) Atomic force microscopy study of the antibacterial ef-fects of chitosans on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Ultrami¬cros-co¬py. 108(10): 1128–1134.
47. Shin CS, Kim DY, Shin WS (2019) Char-acterization of chitosan extracted from Mealworm Beetle (Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas morio) and Rhinoceros Beetle (Allomyrina dichotoma) and their anti-bacterial activities. Int J Biol Macromol. 125: 72–77.
48. Másson M, Holappa J, Hjálmarsdóttir M, Rúnarsson ÖV, Nevalainen T, Järvinen T (2008) Antimicrobial activity of pi¬per-azine derivatives of chitosan. Carbohydr Polym. 74(3): 566–571.
49. World Health Organization (2003) Manu¬al for the laboratory identification and an-timicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial pathogens of public health im-portance in the developing world. Gene-va: World Health Organization. p. No. WHO/CDS/ CSR/RMD/2003.6359.
IssueVol 16 No 4 (2022) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article
Chitosan; Cockroaches; Tenebrio; Anti-bacterial

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Cheraghi E, Kababian M, Moradi-Asl E, Mousavi-Bafrouyi SM, Saghafipour A. Structure and Antibacterial Activity of Chitosan from the American Cockroach, the German Cockroach and the Mealworm Beetle. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 2023;16(4):325–339.