Ehrlichiosis in Household Dogs and Parasitized Ticks in Kerman- Iran: Preliminary Zoonotic Risk Assessment

  • Shahrzad Motaghipisheh Research Center for Modeling in Health, Institute of Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Baharak Akhtardanesh Mail Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Zoonosis research committee of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Reza Ghanbarpour Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Zoonosis research committee of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian Tropical and Infectious Diseases Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences,
  • Mohammad Khalili Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Zoonosis research committee of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Saeed Reza Nourollahifard Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Zoonosis research committee of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Saghar Mokhtari Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Keywords:
Ehrlichiosis, Dog, Ownership risk, Tick, Iran

Abstract

Background: Ehrlichiosis is an emerging tick-borne zoonotic disease caused by the family of Anaplasmatacea. Re­cently, outbreak of human monocytic ehrlichiosis was reported in northern part of Iran. Besides, serological evidence of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia canis was reported from southeastern of Iran but the epidemi­ology of this disease is almost undetermined in Iran. The present study was designed to use PCR for detection of Ehrlichia spp. in tick infested household dogs and determination of risks of disease transmission to dog’s owners.Method: Blood samples were prepared from 100 tick infested household dogs after complete clinical examination. Complete cell blood count was done for each sample. DNA extraction was done and PCR was carried out by a com­mercial kit afterwards. Regarding to PCR results, blood samples were collected from owners and family members who were exposed to infected and non-infected dogs. A similar method was utilized for DNA extraction and PCR in human samples.Result: Ehrlichial DNA was detected by PCR in six percent of Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick pools and 9% of the examined dogs. No positive sample was detected among the 67 examined human bloods.Conclusion: Ehrlichiosis could be considered as an emerging canine disease but owning a dog should not be consid­ered a major risk factor for ehrlichiosis in humans. Further serological and molecular studies in different parts of Iran are required to clarify the epidemiology of ehrlichiosis in canine, ticks, and human population. 

References

Akhtardanesh B, Ghanbarpour R, Blouriza- deh H (2010) Serological evidence of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis in Iran. Comp Clin Path. 19(5): 469–474.

Avizeh R, Mosallanejad B, Razi Jalali M, Alborzi A (2010) Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis in dogs referred to Vet- erinary Hospital of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran. Arc Razi Inst. 65(1): 21–26.

Babamahmoodi F (2004) First outbreak of human ehrlichiosis in Mazandaran Province. 12th Iranian Congress of Tropical Infectious Disease, 17–21January 2004,Tehran, Iran.

Bashiribod H (2004) First Molecular Detec- tion of Anaplasma phagocytophihim in Ixodes ricinus Ticks in Iran. J Med Sci. 4(4): 282–286.

Beugnet F, Marie J L (2009) Emerging arthropod-borne diseases of compan-ion animals in Europe. Vet Parasitol.163(4): 298–305.

Buller RS, Arens M, Hmiel SP, Paddock CD, Sumner JW (1999) Ehrlichia ewingii, a newly recognized agent of human ehrlichiosis. N Engl J Med.341(3): 148–155.

Cizman M, Avsic-Zupanc T, Petrovec M, Ruzic-Sabljic E, Pokorn M (2000) Seroprevalence of ehrlichiosis, Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephali- tis infections in children and young adults in Slovenia. Wien Klin Woch- enschr. 112(19): 842–845.

Dantas-Torres F, Figueredo LA, Brandão- Filho SP (2006) Rhipicephalus san- guineus (Acari: Ixodidae), the brown dog tick, parasitizing humans in Bra- zil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 39 (1):64–67.

Dantas-Torres F (2010) Biology and ecology of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Parasit Vectors. 3(2): 26–37.

Day MJ (2011) One health: the importance of companion animal vector-borne diseases. Parasit Vectors. 4(49): 1–6.

Esemu SN, Ndip LM, Ndip RN (2011) Ehrlichia species, probable emerging human pathogens in sub-Saharan Af- rica: environmental exacerbation. Rev Environ Health. 26(4): 269–279.

Fritz CL (2009) Emerging tick-borne dis- eases. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 39(2): 265–278.

Ganguly S, Mukhopadhayay S (2008) Tick- borne ehrlichiosis infection in human beings. J Vector Borne Dis. 45(4):273–280.

Guglielmone A, Beati L, Barros-Battesti D, Labruna M, Nava S (2006) Ticks (Ixodidae) on humans in South Amer- ica. Exp Appl Acarol. 40(2): 83–100.

Johnson E, Ewing S, Barker R, Fox J, Crow D (1998) Experimental transmission of Ehrlichia canis (Rickettsiales: Ehrlichieae) by Dermacentor varia- bilis (Acari: Ixodidae). Vet arasitol.

(2–4): 277–288.

Khazeni A, Telmadarraiy Z, Oshaghi MA, Mohebali M, Zarei Z (2013) Molecu- lar detection of Ehrlichia canis in ticks population collected on dogs in Meshkin-Shahr, Ardebil Province, Iran. J Biomed Sci and Eng. 6: 1–5.

Ndip LM, Ndip RN, Ndive VE, Awuh JA, Walker DH (2007) Ehrlichia species in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks in Cameroon. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.7(2): 221–227.

Nicholson WL, Allen KE, McQuiston JH, Breitschwerdt EB, Little SE (2010) The increasing recognition of rickett- sial pathogens in dogs and people. Trends Parasitol. 26(4): 205–212.

Perez M, Bodor M, Zhang C, Xiong Q, Rikihisa Y (2006) Human infection with Ehrlichia canis accompanied by clinical signs in Venezuela. New York Academy of Sciences. 1078(1): 110–117.

Perez M, Rikihisa Y, Wen B (1996) Ehr- lichia canis-like agent isolated from a man in Venezuela: antigenic and ge- netic characterization. J Clin Micro- biol. 34(9): 2133–2139.

Shoorijeh SJ, Ghasrodashti AR, Tamadon A, Moghaddar N, Behzadi MA (2008)

Seasonal Frequency of Ectoparasite Infestation in Dogs from Shiraz, Southern Iran. Turk J Vet Anim Sci.32(4): 309–313.

Spolidorio MG, Labruna MB, Machado RZ, Moraes-Filho J, Zago AM (2010) Survey for tick-borne zoonoses in the state of Espirito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 83(1):201–206.

Tefferi A, Hanson CA, Inwards DJ (2005) How to interpret and pursue an abnormal complete blood cell count in adults. Mayo Clinic Proc. 80(7):923–936.

Unver A, Perez M, OrellanaN, Huang H, Rikihisa Y (2001) Molecular and an- tigenic comparison of Ehrlichia canis isolates from dogs, ticks, and a hu- man in Venezuela. J Clin Microbiol.39: 2788–2793.

Walker AR, Bouattour A, Camicas J, Estrada- Pena A, Horak I (2003) Ticks of domestic animals in Africa: a guide to identification of species. Biosci- ence reports Edinburgh, UK.

Willard MD, Tvedten H, Turnwald GH (2012) Small animal clinical diagno- sis by laboratory methods. Appendix ll. WB Saunders Company, Philadel- phia.

Published
2016-05-05
How to Cite
1.
Motaghipisheh S, Akhtardanesh B, Ghanbarpour R, Aflatoonian MR, Khalili M, Nourollahifard SR, Mokhtari S. Ehrlichiosis in Household Dogs and Parasitized Ticks in Kerman- Iran: Preliminary Zoonotic Risk Assessment. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 10(2):246-252.
Section
Original Article