Larvicidal, Biological and Genotoxic Effects, and Temperature-Toxicity Relationship of Some Leaf Extracts of Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae) on Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)
AbstractBackground: The present study was undertaken to study the larvicidal activity of different extracts of Nerium ole-ander leaves, and post-treatment temperature- toxicity relationship of these extracts against Culex pipiens. Further, the most potent extract was used to evaluate its biological and genotoxic activities.Methods: Crude extracts of N. oleander leaves were prepared using water, chloroform, acetone and diethyl ether as solvents. Extraction was carried out using soxhlet apparatus. Bioassay test was carried out on the larvae, and the LC50 of each extract was determined. Thus, newly hatched first instar larvae were treated, and the mortality count was recorded daily till pupation (accumulated mortality). The LC50 of diethyl ether extract, as the most potent ex- tract, was used for the further biological and genotoxic studies.Results: The results obtained indicated that diethyl ether extract of N. oleander leaves was the most potent extract, with LC50 of 10500 mg/l. The toxicity of the four extracts, using the LC50, at 10 °C was higher than that at 35 °C. The LC50 of diethyl ether extract significantly decreased the larval duration, pupal duration, percentage of pupation, percentage of adult emergence, longevity of females, fecundity, and oviposition activity index, whereas the growth index and the percentage of development per day of larvae and pupae were significantly increased compared to non- treated insects. Moreover, treatment with this extract induced significant dominant lethality in both male and female adults.Conclusion: It appears that diethyl ether extract of N. oleander leaves is potential control agent to Cx. pipiens.
Abbott WS (1925) A method of computing the effectiveness of insecticide. J Econ Entomol. 18: 265–267.
Arivoli S, Ravindran KJ, Raveen R, TennysonS (2012) larvicidal activity of botani- cals against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Int J Res Zool. 2: 13–17.
Bashar K, Rahman KMZ, Howlader AJ (2011) Oviposition deterrent activity of some indigenous plant leaf extracts on mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Bangladesh J Life Sci. 23: 25–31.
Bhinder P, Chaudhry A (2013) Evaluation of toxic potential of acephate and chlorpyrifos by dominant lethal test on Culex quinquefasciatus. J Environ Biol.34: 573–577.
Borovsky D (1988) Oostatic hormone inhibits biosynthesis of midgut proteolytic en- zymes and egg development in mos- quitoes. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol.7: 187–210.
Chaubey RC, Aravindakshan M, Chauhan PS (1999) Genetic Toxicology and Chromosome Studies Section. Library and Information Services Division, BARC, Mumbai, India.
Clements AN (1992) The Biology of Mos- quitoes: Development, Nutrition and Re- production. Vol. 1. Chapman and Hall, London.
Das S, Garver L, Dimopoulos G (2007) Pro- tocol for mosquito rearing (A. gambiae). J Vis Exp.5: 221.
El-Shazly MM, El-Zayat EM, Hermersdorfer H (2000) Insecticidal activity, mam- malian cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of an ethanolic extract from Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae). Ann Appl Biol.136: 153–157.
El-Sheikh TMY, Hassan MI, Walaa AM, Amer MS, Shehata AZ (2011) Evaluation of the biological activity of some Cupressus sempervirens (Cupressaceae) extracts against the mosquito vector Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae). Egypt Acad J Biol Sci.4: 33–48.
Farnsworth NR, Bingel AS (1977) New Natural Products and Plant Drugs with Pharmacological, Biological or Thera- peutic Activity. Springer, Berlin, Germa- ny.
Finney DJ (1971) Probit Analysis, 3rd ed.Cambridge University Press, London.
Gautam K, Kumar P, Poonia S (2013)Larvicidal activity and GC-MS analy- sis of flavonoids of Vitex negundo and Andrographis paniculata against two vector mosquitoes Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. J Vector Borne Dis.50: 171–178.
Hinks CF (1985) The influence of tem- perature on the efficacy of three pyrethroid insecticides against the grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fab.) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), under laboratory conditions. Can Entomol.117: 1007–1012.
Hreljac I, Filipic M (2009) Organophosphorous pesticides enhance the genotoxicity of benzo(a)pyrene by modulating its me- tabolism. Mutat Res.671: 84–92.
Ibarra JE, Federici BA (1987) An alternative bioassay employing neonate larvae for determining the toxicity of suspended particles to mosquitoes. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 3: 187–192.
Komalamisra N, Trongtokit Y, Rongsriyam Y, Apiwathnason C (2005) Screening for larvicidal activity in some Thai plants against four mosquito vector species. South Asian J Trop Med Pub Health.36: 1412–1422.
Kumar AR, Yadav D (2013) Antibacterial activity of Nyctanthes arbortristis, Nerium oleander and Catharanthnus roseus. Int J Res Pharmacy Chem.3:509–512.
Kumar G, Karthik L, Rao KVB, Kirthi AV, Rahuman AA (2012) Phytochemical composition and mosquito controlling property of Nerium oleander leaves (Apocynaceae) against Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex gelidus (Diptera: Culicidae). Asian Pac J Trop Biomed.2: 1–6.
Kuppusamy C, Murugan K (2012) Skin and oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and del- eterious delayed mortality effects of α- amyrin acetate against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). J Entomol Res Soc.14:39–53.
Langford SD, Boor PJ (1996) Oleander tox- icity: an examination of human and an- imal toxic exposures. Toxicol. 109: 1–13.
Lokesh R, Leonard Barnabas E, Madhuri P, Saurav K, Sundar K (2010) Larvicidal activity of Trigonella foenum and Nerium oleander leaves against mos- quito larvae in Vellore city, India. Currr Res J Biol Sci.2: 154–160.
Madhuri P, Lokesh R, Revathy AR (2013) Larvicidal activity of methanolic extract of Nerium oleander and Trigonella foenum against Culex mosquito larvae, along with a survey of entire Vellore district for mosquito. Int J Pharma Bio Sci.4: 574–580.
Mathivanan T, Govindarajan M, Elumalai K, Krishnappa K, Ananthan A (2010) Mosquito larvicidal and phytochemical property of Ervatamia coronaria (Apocynaceae). J Vector Borne Dis.47: 178–180.
Mohtar M, Yarmo MA, Kadri A (1999) The effects of Nerium indicum leaf extract on Aedes aegypti larvae. J Trop For Prod.5: 87–92.
Moonis AJ (1979) Studies on food and feeding habits of Triophidia ammlate (Thunberg) (Orthoptera: Acrididae). [PhD thesis]. Department of Zoology, Aligarh Mus- lim University, India.
Musser FR, Shelton AM (2005) The influ- ence of post-exposure temperature on the toxicity of insecticides to Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Pest Manag Sci.61: 508–510.
Powers NR, Oatman ER (1984) Biology and temperature responses of Chelonus kellieae and Chelonus phthorimaeae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and their host the potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Hilgardia.52: 1–32.
Raveen R, Kamakshi KT, Deepa M, Arivoli M, Tennyson S (2014) Larvicidal activi- ty of Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae) flower extracts against Culex quin- quefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Int J Mosq Res. 1: 38–42.
Rawani A, Ghosh A, Chandra G (2010) Mos- quito larvicidal activities of Solanum nigrum L. leaf extract against Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Parasitol Res.107: 1235–1240.
Roni M, Murugan K, Panneerselvam C, Subramaniam J, Hwang JS (2013) Evaluation of leaf aqueous extract and synthesized silver nanoparticles using Nerium oleander against Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res.112: 981–990.
Sakthivadivel M, Daniel T (2003) Larvicidal and chemosterilant activity of the ace- tone fraction of petroleum ether extract from Argemone mexicana L. seed. Bioresour Technol.89: 213–216.
Sakthivadivel M, Daniel T (2008) Evalu- ation of certain insecticidal plants for the control of vector mosquitoes viz. Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles ste- phens and Aedes aegypti. Appl Entomol Zool.43:57–63.
Sakthivadivel M, Gunasekaran P, Annapoorani JT, Samaraj DA, Arivoli S, Tennyson S (2014) Larvicidal activity of Wrightia tinctoria R. BR. (Apocynaceae) fruit and leaf extracts against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Asian Pac J Trop Dis.4: S373–S377.
Santhi R, Lakshmi G, Priyadharshini AM, Anandaraj L (2011) Phytochemical screening of Nerium oleander leaves and Momordica charantia leaves. Int Res J Pharmacy.2: 131–135.
Shaalan EAS, Canyonb D, Younesc MFW, Wahaba HA, Mansoura AH (2005) A review of botanical phytochemicals with mosquitocidal potential. Environ Int.31: 1149–1166.
Sparks TC, Pavloff AM, Rose RL, Clower DF (1983) Temperature-toxicity re- lationships on Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Antho- nomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J Econ Entomol.76:243–246.
Sparks TC, Shour MH, Wellemeyer EG (1982) Temperature-toxicity relation-ships of pyrethroids on three lepidop- terans. J Econ Entomol.75: 643–646.
SPSS (2007) SPSS for windows. Version 11.5. SPSS, Chicago, IL.
Sukumar K, Perich MJ, Boober LR (1991) Botanical derivatives in mosquito con- trol: a review. J Am Mosq Control Assoc.7: 210–237.
Tennyson S, Ravindran KJ, Arivoli S (2012) Screening of twenty five plant extracts for larvicidal activity against Culex quin- quefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Asian Pac J Trop Biomed.2: 1130–1134.
Vinogradova EB (2000) Culex pipiens pipiens Mosquitoes: Taxonomy, Distribution, Ecology, Physiology, Genetics, Applied Importance and Control. Penset Pub- lisher, Sofia, Bulgaria.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.