Original Article

Diversity of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Endemic Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Azar Shahr District, East Azarbaijan Province, North West of Iran

Abstract

Background: There are nearly 1000 species of Phlebotomine sand flies in 6 genera, of which only two, Phlebotomus in the old world and Lutzomyia in the new world are medically important. Globally, leishmaniasis prevalent in 98 countries and affects estimated 12 million people with almost two million new cases per year. Some rural areas of Azarshahr District in East Azarbaijan Province have been reported to be endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. This study is the first attempt to determine the species diversity and density in a new focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Azarshahr District, East Azarbaijan Province, Iran.Methods: Sand flies were collected form indoor and outdoor biweekly using sticky traps. Diversity index of the collected sand flies within different villages were estimated by the Shannon-Weaver.Results: The activity of the sand flies extended from April to October with one peak in August. Diversity of sand flies within study area were estimated as 0.917, 1.867, 1.339, 1.673, and 1.562 in Almalodash, Jaragil, Segaiesh, Amirdizaj, and Germezgol Vvillages, respectively.Conclusion: Identifying the diversity and seasonal abundance of the collected species is of importance for prediction of the period of maximum risk for leishmaniasis transmission and for the successful implementation of a control program. Species diversity is one of the most important factors in ecological studies.

Azizi K, Rassi Y, Javadian E (2006) Phle- botomus (paraphlebotomus) alexandri a probable vector of Leishmania in- fantum in Iran. J Trop Med Parasitol. 100(1): 63–68.

Doha SA, Somy AM (2010) Bionomics of phlebotomine sand fies (Diptera: Psy- chodidae) in the province of Al-Baha, Soudi Arabia. Med Inst, Oswaldo Cruz, Riodejanerio. 105(7): 850– 856.

Faiman R, Cuno R, Warburg A (2009) Cont- rol of phlebotomine sand flies with Vertical fine-Mesh Nets. J Med En- tomol. 46(4): 820–831.

Guernaoui S, Boumezzough A (2009) Ha- bitat preferences of phlebotomine sand flies in southwestern Morocco. J Med Entomol. 46(5): 1187–1194.

Hazratian T, Rassi Y, Oshaghi MA, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Fallah E, Shirzadi MR, Rafizadeh S (2011) Phenology and population dynamics of sand flies in a new focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Eastern Azarbaijan Province, north western of Iran. Asian Pac Trop Med. 4(8): 604–609.

Kasap OE (2009) Activity paterns of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) species and comparative Performance of different trap in an endemic cutaneous leishma- niasis focus in Cukurrova plain, south- ern Anatolia, Turkey. Acta Vet Br. 78:327–335.

Maia C, Seblova V, Sadlova J, Votypka J, Volf P (2011) Experimental transmi- ssion of Leishmania infantum by two magor vectors: a comparison between, viscerotropic and a dermotropic strain. Plos Negl Trop Dis. 5(6): e1181.

Oshaghi MA, MR Yaghobi-Ershadi, M Abbassi, P Parvizi, AA Akhavan, A Rahimi Foroshani, AR Zahraei, Y Rassi, F Mohtarami (2008) Detection of Leishmania major In Naturally In- fected Sand Flies Using Semi Nested- PCR. Iran J Publ Health. 37(4): 59–64.

Oshaghi MA, Maleki Ravasan N, Javadian E, Rassi Y, Sedraei J, Enayati AA (2009) Vector incrimination of sand files in the most important vis-ceral leishmaniasis focus in Iran. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 81(4): 527–577.

Papa A, Konstantinou G, Pavlidou V, An- toniadis A (2006) Sand fly fever virus outbreak in Cyprus. Clin Microbiol Infect. 12: 192–194.

Rajinder S, Phlip E (2010) The seasonal abundance of phlebotomine sand flies, Lutzomyia species in Florida. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 26(1): 10–170.

Rassi Y (2011) First detection of Leishmania infantum in Phlebotomus kandelakii using molecular methods in North East- ern Iran. 7th international sympo-sium on Phlebotomine sand flies, Tur-key.25–30 April, 2011.

Rassi Y (2007) The Seminested PCR based detection of Leishmania infantum in- fection in asymptomatic dogs in a new endemic focus of visceral leishma- niasisn in Iran. Iran J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 1(1): 38–42.

Rassi Y, Firouzi R, Javadian E (2009) Position of visceral leishmaniasis vec- tors in the Kaleybar focus, East Azar- baijan Province, Modarres. J Med Sci- ence. 3(1): 9–14.

Rassi Y, Hanafi-Bojd AA (2006) phlebotom- ine sand flies, vectors of Leishmani- ases: Morphology, biology, ecology, and field and laboratory methods with pictorial key of Iranian sand flies. Noavaran-Elm Publication, Tehran, Iran. (In Persian).

Rassi Y, Javadian E, Nadim A, zaherri A, Vatandoost H, Motazedian MH (2005) Phlebotomus (Larrossius) kandelakii the principle and proven vector of visceral Leishmaniasis in northwest of Iran. Pak J Biol Sci. 8: 180–1806.

Rassi Y, Kavirizadeh F, Javadian E, Mohebali M (2004) First report on natural promastigote infection of Phle- botomus caucasicus in a new focus of visceral leishmaniasis in northwest of Iran. Iran J Publ Health. 4: 70–72.

Tarallo VD (2010) Phlebotomine sand fly population dynamic in a leishmaniasis endemic peri-urban area in southern Italy. Acta Tropical. 116(3): 227–234.

TDR (2008) Research to support the elimi- nation of visceral leishmaniasis, Annual progress Report, Version for JCB. 31.

Triplehorn CA, Johnson NF (2005) Borror and Delongs Introduction to the study of Insects (7th Ed). Brooks/ Thomson Cole USA. Ser, 701.

WHO (1994) Manual on visceral leishma- niasis control, who/leish/96. 40: 1–79.

Young DG, Duncon MA (1994) Guide to the identification and geographic distribu- tion of Lutzomyia sand flies in Mexico, the west indies, central and south America (Diptera: Psychodidae). Asso- ciate Publishers, Gainesville FL.

Files
IssueVol 10 No 3 (2016) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article
Published2016-06-18
Keywords
Diversity Density Sand flies Visceral Leishmaniasis Azar Shahr Iran

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
1.
Hazratian T, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Fallah E, Rafizadeh S, Shirzadi MR, Shayeghi M, Akbarzadeh K, Rassi Y. Diversity of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Endemic Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Azar Shahr District, East Azarbaijan Province, North West of Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 2016;10(3):330-336.