Articles

Conducting International Diploma Course on Malaria Program Planning and Management (1996–2012)

Abstract

Background: Malaria is still a public health problem in the world. One of the main objectives of World Health or-ganization is capacity building of authorities who are involved with malaria control activities.Methods: The first course was conducted in 1996 in Bandar Abbas Training center. The course was conducted jointly by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran, WHO-EMRO and School of Public health, Tehran university of Medical Sciences. In year 2002, Iran has been designated as WHO regional Malaria Training Center. Prior to initiate the course, pre-test evaluations including 11 subjects were carried out. The examinations include multiple choice questions. Different methods of teaching including lecture, laboratory, workshop, team work, field exercise and presentation were used. The duration of the course was 9 weeks. A total of 360 contact hours were taught. The main subjects were Basic epidemiology and Simple Statistics, Malaria Parasitology, Malaria disease Management, Malaria Entomology, Vector Control, Epidemiological approach, Filed work and Planning.The requirement for achievement of the course was to have at least 60% of the total mark for awarding the diploma certificate. The 13th course was conducted by the financial support of Islamic Development Bank (IDB).Results: A total of 300 participants from 26 different countries have been graduated from these courses so far. Conclusion: This course is providing the skill for decision making, how to combat against malaria in their country and is parallel to the policy of the malaria control for capacity building in malarious areas of the world.

Abai MR, Mehravaran A, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Javadian E, Mashayekhi M, Mosleminia A, Piyazak N, Edallat H, Mohtarami F, Jabbari H, Rafi F (2008) Comparative performance of imagicides on Anopheles stephensi, main malaria vector in a malarious area, southern Iran. J Vector Borne Dis. 45 (4): 307–312.

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Chavshin AR, Oshaghi MA, Vatandoost H, Pourmand MR, Raeisi A, Enayati AA, Mardani N, Ghoorchian S (2012) Iden- tification of bacterial microflora in the midgut of the larvae and adult of wild caught Anopheles stephensi: a step to- ward finding suitable paratransgenesis candidates. Acta Trop. 121(2): 129–134.

Davari B, Vatandoost H, Ladonni H, Shaeghi M, Oshaghi MA, Basseri HR (2006) Comparative efficacy of different ima- gicides against different dtrains of Anopheles stephensi in the malarious areas of Iran, 2004–2005. Pak J Biol Sci. 9: 885–892.

Davari B, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Ladonni H, Enayati AA, Shaeghi M (2007) Selection of Anopheles stephensi with DDT and dieldrin and cross-re- sistance spectrum to pyrethroids and fipronil. Pestic Biochem Physiol. 89:97–103.

Dezfouli SR, Oshaghi MA, Vatandoost H, Assmar M (2003) rDNA-ITS2 based species-diagnostic polymerase chain re- action assay for identification of sibling species of Anopheles fluviatilis in Iran. Southeast Asian. J Trop Med Public Health. 2: 56–60.

Doosti S, Azari-Hamidian S, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Hosseini M (2006) Tax- onomic differentiation of Anopheles sacharovi and An. maculipennis S.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae by seta 2 (antepalmate hair). Acta Med Iran. 44:41–43.

Doosti S, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Hosseini M, Sedaghat MM (2007) Ap- plying morphometric variation of seta 2 (Antepalmate Hair) among the larvae of the members of the Maculipennis Subgroup (Diptera: Culicidae) in Iran. Iran J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 1(1): 28–37.

Emami SN, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Mohtarami F, Javadian E, Raeisi A (2007) Morphological method for sex- ing anopheline larvae. J Vector Borne Dis. 44(4): 245–249.

Enayati AA, Vatandoost H, Ladonni H, Townson H, Hemingway J (2003) Molecular evidence for a kdr-like pyrethroid resistance mechanism in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi. Med Vet Entomol. 17(2):138–144.

Hadjiakhoondi A, Aghel N, Zamanizadeh N, Vatandoost H (2000a) Chemical and biological study of Mentha spicata L. essential oil from Iran. Daru. 8: 19–21.

Hadjiakhoondi A, Vatandoost H, Abousaber M, Khanavi M, Abdi L (2000b) Chemical composition of the essential oil of Tagetes minuta L. and its effects on Anopheles stephensi larvae in Iran. J Med Plants. 7: 33–39.

Hadjiakhoondi A, Vatandoost H, Jamshidi A, Amiri EB (2003) Chemical constituents and efficacy of Cymbopogon olivieri (Boiss.) bar essential oil against ma- laria vector, Anopheles stepensi. Daru.11: 125–128.

Hadjiakhoondi A, Vatandoost H, Khanavi M, Abaee MR (2005) Biochemical inves- tigation of different extracts and larvicidal activity of Tagetes minuta L on Anopheles stephensi larvae. Iran J Pharm Sci. 1: 81–84.

Hadjiakhoondi A, Sadeghipour-Roodsari HR, Vatandoost H, Khanavi M, Abaee MR, Vosoughi M (2006) Fatty acid composition and toxicity of Melia azedarach L. fruits against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Iran J Pharm Sci. 2: 97–102.

Hanafi-Bojd AA, Vatandoost H, Jafari R (2006) Susceptibility status of Anophe- les dthali and An. fluviatilis to com- monly used larvicides in an endemic focus of malaria, southern Iran. J Vec- tor Borne Dis. 43(1): 34–38.

Hanafi-Bojd AA, Vatandoost H, Philip E, Stepanova E, Abdi AI, Safari R, Mohseni GH, Bruhi MI, Peter A, Abdulrazag SH, Mangal G (2010) Malaria Situation Analysis and Stratifi- cation in BandarAbbas County, South- ern Iran, 2004–2008. Iran J Arthropod- Borne Dis. 4(1): 31–41.

Hanafi-Bojd AA, Azari-Hamidian S, Vatan- doost H, Charrahy Z (2011a) Spatio- temporal distribution of malaria vec- tors (Diptera: Culicidae) across differ- ent climatic zones of Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 4(6): 498–504.

Hanafi-Bojd AA, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Eshraghian MR, Haghdoost AA, Abedi F, Zamani G, Sedaghat MM, Rashidian A, Madani AH, Raeisi A (2011b) Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding malaria control in an endemic area of southern Iran. Southeast Asian. J Trop Med Public Health. 42(3): 491–501.

Hanafi-Bojd AA, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Haghdoost AA, Shahi M, Sedaghat MM, Abedi F, Yeryan M, Pakari A (2012a) Entomological and epidemio- logical attributes for malaria transmis- sion and implementation of vector con- trol in southern Iran. Acta Trop. 121(2):85–92.

Hanafi-Bojd AA, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Charrahy Z, Haghdoost AA, Sedaghat MM, Abedi F, Soltani M, Raeisi A (2012b) Larval habitats and biodiversity of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malarious area of southern Iran. J Vector Borne Dis. 49(2): 91–100.

Hanafi-Bojd AA, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Charrahy Z, Haghdoost AA, Zamani G, Abedi F, Sedaghat MM, Soltani M, Shahi M, Raeisi A (2012c) Spatial analysis and mapping of ma- laria risk in an endemic area, south of Iran: a GIS based decision making for planning of control. Acta Trop. 122(1):132–137.

Hemami MR, Sari AA, Raeisi A, Vatandoost H, Majdzadeh R (2013)Malaria elimi- nation in iran, mportance and chal- lenges. Int J Prev Med. 4(1): 88–94.

Khanavi M, Toulabi PB, Abai MR, Sadati N, Hadjiakhoondi F, Hadjiakhoondi A, Vatandoost H (2011) Larvicidal activ- ity of marine algae, Sargassum swartzii and Chondria dasyphylla, against ma- laria vector Anopheles stephensi. J Vector Borne Dis. 48(4): 241–244.

Khanavi M, Vatandoost H, Khosravi Dehaghi N, Sanei Dehkordi A, Sedaghat MM, Hadjiakhoondi A, Hadjiakhoondi F (2013) Larvicidal activities of some Iranian native plants against the main malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi. Acta Med Iran. 51(3): 141–147.

Mehravaran A, Oshaghi MA, Vatandoost H, Abai MR, Ebrahimzadeh A, Roodi AM, Grouhi A (2011) First report on Anoph- eles fluviatilis U in southeastern Iran. Acta Trop. 117(2): 76–81.

Mehravaran A, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Abai MR, Edalat H, Javadian E, Mashayekhi M, Piazak N, Hanafi-Bojd AA (2012) Ecology of Anopheles ste- phensi in a malarious area, southeast of Iran. Acta Med Iran. 50(1): 61–65.

Moosa-Kazemi SH, Vatandoost H, Raeisi A, Akbarzadeh K (2007) Deltamethrin im- pregnated bed nets in a malaria control program in Chabahar, southeast Balu- chistan, IR Iran. Iran J Arthropod- Borne Dis. 1(1): 43–51.

Moosa-Kazemi SH, H Vatandoost, H Ni- kookar, M Fathian (2009) Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes in Cha- bahar county, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, coutheastern Iran. Iran J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 3(1): 29–35.

Naddaf SR, Oshaghi MA, Vatandoost H, Assmar M (2003) Molecular charac- terization of Anopheles fluviatilis spe- cies complex in the Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 9(3):257–265.

Naddaf SR, Oshaghi MA, Vatandoost H (2012) Confirmation of Two Sibling Species among Anopheles fluviatilis Mosquitoes in South and Southeastern Iran by Analysis of Cytochrome Oxi- dase I Gene. J Arthropod-Borne Dis.6(2): 144–148.

Nikookar SH, Moosa-Kazemi SH, Oshaghi MA, Vatandoost H, Kianinasab A (2010) Species composition and diver- sity of mosquitoes in Neka county, Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. Iran J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 4(2): 26–34.

Omrani SM, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Shokri F, Guerin PM, Yaghoobi Ershadi MR, Rassi Y, Tirgari S (2010a) Fab- rication of an olfactometer for mos- quito behavioral studies. J Vector Borne Dis. 47(1): 17–25.

Omrani SM, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Shokri F, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Rassi Y, Tirgari S (2010b) Differential re- sponses of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) to skin Eemanations of a man, a cow, and a Guinea Pig in the olfactometer. Iran J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 4(1): 1–16.

Omrani SM, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Rahimi A (2012) Upwind responses of Anopheles stephensi to carbon dioxide and L-lactic acid: an olfactometer study. East Mediterr Health J. 18(11):1134–1142.

Oshaghi MA, Ghalandari R, Vatandoost H, Shayeghi M, Kmali-nejad M, Tourabi- Khaledi H (2003a) Repellent effect of extracts and essential oil of Citrus limon (Rutaceae) and Melissa officinalis (Labiatae) against main malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) in Iran. Iran J Public Health. 32: 47–52.

Oshaghi MA, Sedaghat MM, Vatandoost H (2003b) Molecular characterization of the Anopheles maculipennis complex in the Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 9(4): 659–666.

Oshaghi MA, Chavshin AR, Vatandoost H (2006a) Analysis of mosquito blood- meals using RFLP markers. Exp Parasitol. 114(4): 259–264.

Oshaghi MA, Yaghoobi F, Vatandoost H, Abai MR, Akbarzadeh K (2006b) Anopheles stephensi biological forms, geographical distribution, and malaria transmission in malarious regions in Iran. Pak J Biol Sci. 9: 294–298.

Oshaghi MA, Chavshin AR, Vatandoost H, Yaaghoobi F, Mohtarami F, Noorjah N (2006c) Effects of post-ingestion and physical conditions on PCR amplification of host blood meal DNA in mosquitoes. Exp Parasitol. 112(4): 232–236.

Oshaghi MA, Shemshad Kh, Yaghobi-Ershadi MR, Pedram M, Vatandoost H, Abaie MR, Akbarzadeh K, Mohtarami F (2007) Genetic structure of the malaria vector Anopheles superpictus in Iran using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COI and COII) and morphologic markers: a new species complex? Acta Trop. 101(3): 241–248.

Oshaghi MA, Vatandoost H, Gorouhi A, Abai MR, Madjidpour A, Arshi S, Sadeghi H, Nazari M, Mehravaran A (2011) Anopheline species composi- tion in borderline of Iran-Azerbaijan. Acta Trop. 119(1): 44–49.

Rafinejad J, Vatandoost H, Nikpoor F, Abai MR, Shaeghi M, Duchen S, Rafi F (2008) Effect of washing on the bioefficacy of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) against main malaria vector Anopheles stephensi by three bioassay methods. J Vector Borne Dis.45(2): 143–150.

Sadat Ebrahimi SE, Hadjiakhoondi A, Rezazadeh Sh, Fereidunian N, Vatandoost H, Abaei MR (2005) The components of Tagetes minuta L. and its biological activities against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi in Iran. J Med Plants. 4: 43–47.

Salari Lak SH, Vatandoost H, Entezarmahd MR, Ashraf H, Abai MR, Nazari M (2002) Monitoring of insecticide re- sistance in Anopheles sacharovi (Fa- vre, 1903) in borderline of Iran, Arme- nia, Naxcivan and Turkey, 2001. Iran J Public Health. 31: 96–99.

Sedaghat MM, Linton YM, Oshaghi MA, Vatandoost H, Harbach RE (2003) The Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Iran: molecular characterization and recognition of a new species. Bull Entomol Res. 93(6):527–535.

Sedaghat MM, A Sanei Dehkordi, MR Abai, M Khanavi Khanavi, F Mohtarami, Y Salim Abadi, F Rafi, H Vatandoost (2011a) Larvicidal activity of essential oils of Apiaceae plants against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi. Iran J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 5(2): 51–59.

Sedaghat MM, Dehkordi AS, Khanavi M, Abai MR, Mohtarami F, Vatandoost H (2011b) Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Cupressus arizonica E.L. Greene against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Lis- ton (Diptera: Culicidae). Pharmaco- gnosy Res. 3(2): 135–139.

Shahi M, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Iranshahi M, Vatandoost H, Hanafi-Bojd MY (2010) Larvicidal efficacy of latex and extract of Calotropis procera (Gentianales: Asclepiadaceae) against Culex quin- quefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). J Vector Borne Dis. 47(3): 185–188.

Soleimani-Ahmadi M, Vatandoost H, Shaeghi M, Raeisi A, Abedi F, Eshraghian MR, Aghamolaei T, Madani AH, Safari R, Jamshidi M, Alimorad A (2012a) Ef- fects of educational intervention on long-lasting insecticidal nets use in a malarious area, southeast Iran. Acta Med Iran. 50(4): 279–287.

Soleimani-Ahmadi M, Vatandoost H, Shaeghi M, Raeisi A, Abedi F, Eshraghian MR, Madani A, Safari R, Oshaghi MA, Abtahi M, Hajjaran H (2012b) Field evaluation of permethrin long-lasting insecticide treated nets (Olyset(®)) for malaria control in an endemic area, southeast of Iran. Acta Trop. 123(3): 146–153.

Soleimani-Ahmadi M, Vatandoost H, Shaeghi M, Raeisi A, Abedi F, Eshraghian MR, Madani A, Safari R, Shahi M, Mojahedi A, Poorahmad- Garbandi F (2012c) Vector ecology and susceptibility in a malaria-endemic focus in southern Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 18(10):1034–1041.

Soleimani-Ahmadi M, Vatandoost H, Hanafi- Bojd AA, Zare M, Safari R, Mojahedi A, Poorahmad-Garbandi F (2013) En- vironmental characteristics of anopheline mosquito larval habitats in a malaria endemic area in Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 6(7): 510–515.

Soltani A, Vatandoost H, Jabbari H, Mesda- ghinia AR, Mahvi AH, Younesian M, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Bozorgzadeh S, Abai MR, Pakari A, Shabkhiz H ( 2008) Use of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) and Shredded Waste Polystyrene (SWAP) beads for control of mosquitoes. Iran J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 2(2): 12–20.

Soltani A, Vatandoost H, Jabbari H, Mesda- ghinia AR, Mahvi AH, Younesian M, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Bozorgzadeh S (2012) Field efficacy of expanded polystyrene and shredded waste polystyrene beads for mosquito control in artificial pools and field trials, Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 18(10):1042–1048.

Soltani A, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Enayati AA, Raeisi A, Eshraghian MR, Soltan-Dallal MM, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Abai MR, Rafi F (2013) Baseline sus- ceptibility of different geographical strains of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) to Temephos in malarious areas of Iran. J Arthropod-Borne Dis.7(1): 56–60.

Vatandoost H, Ashraf H, Lak SH, Mahdi RE, Abai MR, Nazari M (2003) Factors involved in the re-emergence of malaria in borderline of Iran, Armenia, Azer- baijan and Turkey. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 34(2): 6–14.

Vatandoost H, Mesdaghinia AR, Zamani G, Madjdzadeh R, Holakouie K, Sadrizadeh B, Atta H, Beales PF (2004a) Deve- lopment of the Regional Malaria Train- ing Centre in Bandar-e Abbas, Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 10(1–2): 215–224.

Vatandoost H, Shahi H, Abai MR, Hanafi- Bojd AA, Oshaghi MA, Zamani G (2004b) Larval habitats of main malaria vectors in Hormozgan Province and their susceptibility to different lar- vicides. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 35–38.

Vatandoost H, Vaziri VM (2004) Larvicidal activity of a neem tree extract (Neemarin) against mosquito larvae in the Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 10(4–5): 573–581.

Vatandoost H, Mashayekhi M, Abaie MR, Aflatoonian MR, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Sharifi I (2005) Monitoring of insecticides resistance in main malaria vec- tors in a malarious area of Kahnooj dis- trict, Kerman Province, southeastern Iran. J Vector Borne Dis. 42(3): 100–108.

Vatandoost H, Dehakia M, Djavadia E, Abai MR, Duchson S (2006a) Comparative study on the efficacy of lambdacy- halothrin and bifenthrin on torn nets against the malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi as assessed by tunnel test meth- od. J Vector Borne Dis. 43(3): 133–135.

Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Abaie MR, Shahi M, Yaaghoobi F, Baghaii M, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Zamani G, Townson H (2006b) Bionomics of Anopheles stephensi Liston in the malarious area of Hormozgan Province, southern Iran,2002. Acta Trop. 97(2): 196–203.

Vatandoost H, Shahi M, Hanafi-Bojd AA,Abai MR, Oshaghi MA, Rafii F (2007) Ecology of Anopheles dthali Patton in Bandar Abbas district, Hormozgan Province, southern Iran. Iran J Arthro- pod-Borne Dis. 1(1): 21–27.

Vatandoost H, Hanafi-Bojd AA (2008) Laboratory evaluation of 3 repellents against Anopheles stephensi in the Is- lamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 14(2): 260–267

Vatandoost H, Khazani A, Rafinejad J, Khoobdel M, Kebriai-Zadeh A, Abai MR (2008) Comparative efficacy of Neem and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) against malaria vector, Anopheles ste- phensi (Diptera: Culicidae). Asian Pa- cific J Trop Med. 1: 1–6.

Vatandoost H, Abai MR, Abbasi M, Shaeghi M, Abtahi M, Rafie F (2009a) De- signing of a laboratory model for eval- uation of the residual effects of del- tamethrin (K-othrine WP 5%) on dif- ferent surfaces against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: culicidae). J Vector Borne Dis. 46(4): 261–267.

Vatandoost H, Ramin E, Rassi Y, Abai MR (2009b) Stability and wash resistance of local made mosquito bednets and detergents treated with pyrethroids against Anopheles stephensi. Iran J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 3(1): 19–28.

Vatandoost H, Zahirnia AH (2010) Respon- siveness of Anopheles maculipennis to different imagicides during resurgent malaria. Asian Pacific J Trop Med. 3:360–363.

Vatandoost H, Rashidian A, Jafari M, Raeisi A, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Yousofzai AW, Daryanavard A, Mojahedi A, Pakari A (2011a) Demonstration of malaria situ- ation analysis, stratification and plan- ning in Minab District, southern Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 4(1): 67–71.

Vatandoost H, Emami SN, Oshaghi MA, Abai MR, Raeisi A, Piazzak N, Mahmoodi M, Akbarzadeh K, Sartipi M (2011b) Ecology of malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies in a malarious area of Sistan va Baluchestan Prov- ince, south-east Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 17(5):439–445.

Vatandoost H, Abai MR (2012) Irritability of malaria vector, Anopheles sacharovi to different insecticides in a malaria- prone area. Asian Pac J Trop Med.5(2): 113–116.

Vatandoost H, Hanafi-Bojd AA (2012) Indication of pyrethroid resistance in the main malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi from Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Med. (9): 722–726.

Vatandoost H, Sanei Dehkordi A, Sadeghi SM, Davari B, Karimian F, Abai MR, Sedaghat MM (2012) Identification of chemical constituents and larvicidal activity of Kelussia odoratissima Mo- zaffarian essential oil against two mosquito vectors Anopheles stephensi and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Exp Parasitol. 132(4): 470–474.

Vatandoost H, Mamivandpoor H, Abai MR, Shayeghi M, Rafi F, Raeisi A, Nikpoor F (2013) Wash resistance and bio-effi- cacy of Alpha-cypermethrin long last- ing impregnated nets (LLIN-Intercep- tor®) against Anopheles stephensi using tunnel test. J Arthropod-Borne Dis.7(1): 31.

World Health Organization: World Malaria Report. Insecticide resistance monitor- ing Geneva, Switzerland 2010, p. 204.

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Mesdaghinia AR, Vatandoost H, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Majdzadeh R, Raeisi A. Conducting International Diploma Course on Malaria Program Planning and Management (1996–2012). J Arthropod Borne Dis. 7(2):100-112.