MtDNA CytB Structure of Rhombomys opimus (Rodentia: Gerbellidae), the Main Reservoir of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the Borderline of Iran-Turkmenistan
AbstractBackground: Great gerbils, Rhombomys opimus, are the main reservoir host of zoonootic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in Iran and neighboring countries. Based on morphological traits two subspecies R. opimus sodalis and R. opimus sargadensis have reported in the country. However, variation in infection rate and signs to Leishmania parasites, phenotype, size, and sexual polymorphisms demand more details to elucidate clearly the role of great gerbils in ZCL epidemiology.Methods: PCR-RFLP and PCR-direct sequencing were used to analyze mitochondrial DNA cytochrome B (mtDNA- cytB) gene structure of R. opimus collected from Golestan and Khorasan-e-Razavi Provinces in 2011 that are neighbor to Turkmenistan Country where ZCL is endemic in both sides of the borderline.Results: All of the specimens (n= 61) were morphologically or genetically similar to the typical R. opimus sodalis. However, there were 9 (1.5%) DNA substitutions throughout the 583 bp of the Cyt b gene of the samples sequenced comprising six DNA haplotypes. Maximum likelihood or neighbor joining phylogenetic trees inferred from the sequences could resolve the populations according to their subspecies as well as geographical origins.Discussion: The DNA polymorphisms in the great gerbils may correspond to the signs and infection rate in the animal. However, further studies are needed to match these six haplotypes with different signs and parasite sustaining following infection with L. major in the great gerbils.
Abai MR, Oshaghi MA, Tajedin L, Rassi Y, Akhavan AA (2010) Geographical dis- tribution and ecological features of the great gerbil subspecies in the main zo- onotic cutaneous leishmaniasis foci in Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 3: 800–803.
Akhavan AA, Mirhendi H, Khamesipour A, Alimohammadian MH, Rassi Y, Bates P, Kamhawi S, Valenzuela JG, Arandian MH, Abdoli H, Jalali-zand N, Jafari R, Shareghi N, Ghanei M, Yaghoobi- Ershadi MR (2010a) Leishmania spe- cies: Detection and identification by nested PCR assay from skin samples of rodent reservoirs. Exp Parasitol.126: 552–556.
Akhavan AA, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Kha- mesipour A, Mirhendi H, Alimoham- madian MH, Rassi Y, Arandian MH, Jafari R, Abdoli H, Shareghi N, Ghanei M, Jalali-Zand N (2010b) Dynamics of Leishmania infection rates in Rhom- bomys opimus (Rodentia: Gerbillinae) population of an endemic focus of zo- onotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 103: 84–89.
Akhavan AA, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Mir- hendi H, Alimohammadian MH, Rassi Y, Shareghi N, Jafari R, Arandian MH, Abdoli H, Ghanei M, Jalali-Zand N, Khamesipour A (2010c) Molecular epi- zootiology of rodent leishmaniasis in a hyperendemic area of Iran. Iranian J Publ Health. 39: 1–7.
Ameen M (2010) Cutaneous leishmaniasis: Advances in disease pathogenesis, di- agnostics and therapeutics. Clin Exp Dermatol. 35: 699–705.
Arntzen L, Wadee AA, Isaäcson M (1991) Immune responses of two Mastomys sibling species to Yersinia pestis. In- fect Immun. 59: 1966–1971.
Castellucci L, Jamieson SE, Almeida L, Oliveira J, Guimarães LH, Lessa M, Fakiola M, Jesus AR, Nancy Miller E, Carvalho EM, Blackwell JM (2012) Wound healing genes and susceptibility to cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. Infect Genet Evol. 12(5): 1102–1110.
Davis S, Begon M, De Bruyn L, Ageyev VS, Klassovskiy NL, Pole SB, Viljugrein H, Stenseth NC, Leirs H (2004) Pre- dictive thresholds for plague in Ka- zakhstan. Science. 304: 736–738.
Desjeux P (2004) Leishmaniasis: Current sit- uation and new perspectives. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 27: 305–318.
Dubrovsky YA (1975) Ecological causes of predominance of some mammals as, reservoirs of Leishmania tropica major in Turanian deserts. Folia Parasitol. 22:163–169.
Etemad A (1978) Iranian mammals: rodents and their identification keys. In: Publi- cation of National Association of natu- ral resources and human environment protection, first ed. Tehran University Publication, Tehran.
Goodwin GG (1940) Mammals collected by the Legendre 1938 Iran expedition. Am Mus Novit. 1082: 1–17.
Gora D, Yaya T, Jocelyn T, Didier F, Maoulouth D, Amadou S, Ruel TD, Gonzalez JP (2000) The potential role of rodents in the enzootic cycle of rift valley fever virus in Senegal. Microbes Infect. 2: 343–346.
Hajjaran H, Mohebali M, Abaei MR, Oshaghi MA, Zarei Z, Charehdara S, Mirjalali H, Sharifdini M, Teimouri A (2013) Nat- ural infection and phylogenetic clas- sification of Leishmania spp. infecting Rhombomys opimus, a primary reser- voir host of zoonotic cutaneous leish- maniasis in northeast Iran. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 107(9): 550–557.
Higgins DG, Sharp PM (1988) CLUSTAL: A package for performing multiple sequence alignment on a microcom- puter. Gene. 73: 237–244.
IMHME (2010) IMHME: Iran Ministry of Health and Medical Education, 2010. Of- ficial Report of Leishmania Cases in Iran.
Kamali-Sarvestani E, Rasouli M, Mortazavi H, Gharesi-Fard B (2006) Cytokine gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to cu- taneous leishmaniasis in Iranian pa- tients. Cytokine. 35: 159–165.
Karimian F, Sedaghat MM, Oshaghi MA, Mohtarami F, Sanei Dehkordi A, Koosha M, Akbari S, Hashemi-Aghdam SS (2011) Utility of filter paper for pre- serving insects, bacteria, and host reservoir DNA for molecular testing. Iran
J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 5(2): 42–50. Kent RJ, Norris DE (2005) Identification of mammalian blood meals in mosquitoes by a multiplexed polymerase chain re- action targeting cytochrome B. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 73: 336–342.
Korobitsyna KV (1974) Analysis of the interpopulation karyotype variability in Meriones meridianus with special ref- erence to the resistance against the plague microbe. Zool Zh. 53: 1066–1069.
Maleki-Ravasan N, Oshaghi MA, Javadian E, Rassi Y, Sadraei J, Mohtarami F (2009) Blood meal identification in field-captured sand flies: comparison of PCR-RFLP and ELISA assays. Iran J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 3: 8–18.
Mallon DP (1985) The mammals of the Mongolian People's Republic. Mammal Rev. 15: 71–102.
Meerburg BG, Singleton GR, Kijlstra A (2009) Rodent-borne diseases and their, risks for public health. Crit Rev Microbiol.35: 221–270.
Mills JN (2005) Regulation of rodent-borne viruses in the natural host: implications for human disease. Infectious Diseases from Nature: Mechanisms of Viral Emergence and Persistence: 45–57.
Mohamed HS, Ibrahim ME, Miller EN, Peacock CS, Khalil EA, Cordell HJ, Howson JM, El Hassan AM, Bereir RE, Blackwell JM (2003). Genetic suscep- tibility to visceral leishmaniasis in The Sudan: linkage and association with IL4 and IFNGR1. Genes Immun. 4(5):351–355.
Mohebali M, Javadian E, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Akhavan AA, Hajjaran H, Abai MR (2004) Characterization of Leishmania infection in rodents from endemic areas of the Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 10: 591–599.
Molur S, Srinivasulu C, Srinivasulu B, Walker S, Nameer PO, Ravikumar L (2005)Status of Non-Volant Small Mammals. Conservation Assessment and Manage- ment Plan (CAMP) Workshop Report, Coimbatore, India.
Moravej A, Rasouli M, Kalani M, Asaei S, Kiany S, Najafipour S, Koohpayeh A, Abdollahi A (2012) IL-1β (-511T/C) gene polymorphism not IL-1β (+3953T/ C) and LT-α (+252A/G) gene variants confers susceptibility to visceral leish- maniasis. Mol Biol Rep. 39(6): 6907–6914.
Nowak R (1999) Walkers Mammals of the World, (sixth ed). Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
Oshaghi MA, Rassi Y, Tajedin L, Abai MR, Akhavan AA, Enayati A, Mohtarami F (2011) Mitochondrial DNA diversity in the populations of great gerbils, Rhombomys opimus, the main reservoir of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Acta Trop.119: 165–171.
Oshaghi MA, Rasolian M, Shirzadi MR, Mohtarami F, Doosti S (2010) First re- port on isolation of Leishmania tropica from sandflies of a classical urban cu- taneous leishmaniasis focus in south- ern Iran. Exp Parasitol. 126(4): 445–450.
Oshaghi MA, Yaghobi-Ershadi MR, Abbassi M, Parvizi P, Akhavan AR, Foroshani AR, Zahraei AR, Rassi Y, Mohtarami F (2008) Detection of Leishmania major in naturally infected sand flies using semi Nested-PCR. Iranian J Publ Health.37: 59–64.
Rassi Y, Oshaghi MA, Azani SM, Abaie MR, Rafizadeh S, Mohebai M, Mohtarami F, Zeinali Mk (2011) Molecular detection of Leishmania infection due to Leish- mania major and Leishmania turanica in the vectors and reservoir host in Iran. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 11(2):145–150.
Rassi Y, Abai MR, Javadian E, Rafizadeh S, Imamian H, Mohebali M (2008a) Mo- lecular data on vectors and reservoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishma- niasis in central Iran. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 101: 425–428.
Rassi Y, Sofizadeh A, Abai MR, Oshaghi MA, Rafizadeh S, Mohebail M, Mohtarami F, Salahi R (2008b) Molecular Detec- tion of Leishmania major in the Vec- tors and Reservoir Hosts of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Kalaleh District, Go- lestan Province, Iran. Iran J Arthropod Borne Dis. 2: 21–27.
Reithinger R, Dujardin JC, Louzir H, Pirmez C, Alexander B, Brooker S (2007) Cutaneous leishmaniasis. Lancet Infect Dis. 7: 581–596.
Rogovin K, Randall JA, Kolosova I, Moshkin M (2003) Social correlates of stress, in adult males of the great gerbil. Rhombomys opimus, in years of high and low, population densities. Horm Behav. 43: 132–139.
Sakthianandeswaren A, Foote SJ, Handman E (2009) The role of host genetics in, leish- maniasis. Trends Parasitol. 25: 383–391.
Sakthianandeswaren A, Curtis JM, Elso C, Kumar B, Baldwin TM, Lopaticki S, Kedzierski L, Smyth GK, Foote SJ, Handman E (2010) Fine mapping of Leishmania major susceptibility Locus lmr2 and evidence of a role for Fli1 in disease and wound healing. Infect Immun. 78(6): 2734–2744.
Salhi A, Rodrigues Jr V, Santoro F, Dessein H, Romano A, Castellano LR, Sertorio M, Rafati S, Chevillard C, Prata A (2008) Immunological and genetic evidence for a crucial role of IL-10 in cutaneous lesions in humans infected with Leish- mania braziliensis. J Immunol. 180:6139–6148.
Shar S, Lkhagvasuren D, Molur S (2009) Rhombomys opimus. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Version 2. http:// www.iucnredlist.org.
Smith A, Xie Y (2008) The Mammals of Chi- na. Princeton University Press, Prince- ton, NJ.Sosnina EF (1979) The lice of the gerbils of Ta- jikistan. Vshi peschanok Tadzhikistana.13: 29–35.
Strelkova MV, Eliseev LN, Ponirovsky EN, Dergacheva TI, Annacharyeva DK, Erokhin PI, Evans DA (2001) Mixed leishmanial infections in Rhombomys opimus: A key to the persistence of Leishmania major from one transmis- sion season to the next. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 95: 811–819.
Tamura K, Dudley J, Nei M, Kumar S (2007).
MEGA4: Molecular Evolutionary Genet- ics Analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Mol Biol Evol. 24(8): 1596–1599. WHO (2009) WHO: World Health Organisation internal report.
WHO (2012) World Health Organization
Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Akhavan AA, Mo- hebali M (1996) Meriones libycus and Rhombomys opimus (Rodentia: ger- billidae) are the main reservoir hosts in a new focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg. 90: 503–504.
Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Javadian E (1996) Ep- idemiological study of reservoir hosts in an endemic area of zoonotic cutane- ous leishmaniasis in Iran. Bull World Health Organ. 74: 587–590.
Zhang YJ, Dai X (2008) Study on the situa- tion of plague in Junggar Basin of Chi- na Study, Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 29: 136–144.
Ziaei H (1996) A Field Guide for Identifying of Iranian Desert Mammalians. Iranian Environment Organization, Tehran.
|Issue||Vol 7 No 2 (2013)|
|Iran Leishmaniasis Rombomys opimus ZCL mtDNA cytB|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|