Sand Flies of the Subgenus Adlerius (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Endemic Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Introduction of Phlebotomus (Adlerius) comatus as a New Record for Iran.
AbstractBackground: Sand flies of subgenus Adlerius has a wide geographical distribution in Iran and are mostly found in wild form in mountainous areas. They are always considered as probable vectors of visceral leishmaniasis. The ob- jective of this study was to determine the Adlerius species and its composition in an endemic focus of zoonotic vis- ceral leishmaniasis in northwest of the country.Methods: Sand flies were collected from 6 different areas of Azarbaijan-e-Sharqi Province using sticky paper traps from August to September which is active season for sand flies in this area, in 2009. The flies were mounted and identified. The length of third antennal segments, ascoid, labrum, coxite, surstyle, style, aedeagus, genital filament, genital pump, width of style, and the end of aedeagus were measured and the number of costal hairs group was also counted as the morphological characters.Results: A total of 30 adult sand flies, (26 males and 4 females) including Phlebotomus halepensis (46.8%), P. longiductus (13.3%), P. balcanicus (23.3%), P. comatus (3.3%), and Adlerius spp. (13.3%) belong to subgenus Adlerius were identified respectively in 6 counties. One P. comatus male was captured in front of a cave located in the hillside of a mountain covered with the vegetation in Varzeqan area.Conclusion: The presence of at least 5 species of the subgenus Adlerius in Azarbaijan-e-Sharqi Province, an en- demic focus of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in Iran, shows that the risk of parasite transmission among man and reservoir animals is high during the active season of sand flies. P. comatus is a new record for Iran and needs to be added to the list of Iranian phlebotomines of subgenus Adlerius.
Akhundi M, Parvizi P, Baghaei A, Depaquit J (2012) The subgenus Adlerius Nitzulescu (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotomus) in Iran. Acta Trop. 122: 7–15.
Ardehali SV, Rezaei HR, Nadim A (1995) Leishmania Parasite and Leishmaniasis. Academic Press Center, Tehran, Iran, pp. 208 (in Persian).
Artemiev V MM (1973) Sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotomine) of Afghan- istan, Malaria and Leishmania Insti- tute, Afghanistan. 174 pp.
Desjeux P, Alvar J (2003) Leishmania/HIV co-infections: epidemiology in Europe. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 97(1): S3–S15.
Kasiri H, Javadian E, Seyedi-Rashti MA (2000) Liste des phlebotomes (Diptera: Psychodidae) d’ Iran. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 93(2): 129–130.
Lewis DJ (1978) The Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of the ori- ental region. Bull Br Mus Nat Hist (Entomol). 37(6): 434 pp.
Lewis DJ (1982) A taxonomic review of the genus Phlebotomus (Diptera: Psycho- didae). Bull Br Mus Hist (Ent). 45(2):121–209.
Rassi Y, Javadian E, Abai MR, Naghian A, Fallah A (2000) Fauna of sand flies in northwest of Iran. Hakim Res J. 3(1):11–18.
Seyedi-Rashti MA, Nadim A (1992) The Genus Phlebotomus (Diptera: Psycho- didae: Phlebotominae) of the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Iranian J Publ Health. 21(1–4): 11–50.
Seyedi-Rashti MA, Javadian E (2008) Vectors of human leishmaniasis in Iran, sand flies of genus Phlebotomus. In: Nadim A, Javadian E, Mohebali M and Zamen- Momeni A (Eds) Leishmania Parasite and Leishmaniasis. Academic Press Cen- ter, Tehran, Iran. pp: 162–176 (in Per- sian).
Smart J, Jordan K, Whittick RJ (1965) Insects of Medical Importance. 4th ed. British Museum, National History, Oxford, Adlen Press. 286–288.
Theodor O, Mesghali A (1964) On the phle- botominae of Iran. J Med Entomol. 1:285–300.
World Health Organization (2010) Control of Leishmaniasis. Technical Report Se- ries 949 of WHO Export Committee. Geneva. 186 pp.
Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR (2012) Phlebotomine Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Iran and their role on Leishmania transmis- sion. J Arthropod-Borne Dis, 6(1): 1–17.
Copyright (c) Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.